An olive rootstock planting was established in Tulare County, California in 1954 using 10 different rootstocks with ‘Sevillano’ as the scion variety. Verticillium wilt, a major problem in California olive production, became strongly established in this planting, affecting trees on the different rootstocks to a markedly different degree. All trees on 2 of the rootstocks, Olea ferruginea Royle and Forestiera neo-mexicana Gray were killed. No trees on a clonal rootstock, Olea europaea, ‘Oblonga’ were affected, while trees on the 7 other rootstocks showed intermediate survival percentages. Over a 15-year period, tree size and yields were influenced by the rootstock. ‘Sevillano’ trees, on their own roots, were the smallest as measured by trunk cross section area. There was no pronounced effect of rootstock on fruit size.
In another olive planting in Tulare County, California, the effect of various interstocks, inserted during a top-working operation, on the behavior of the scion cultivar was determined. No Verticillium wilt was apparent in any of the trees in this experiment. Each of 3 genetically dwarfed clonal stocks caused a significant dwarfing influence on the scion cultivar and a reduction in yields, in comparison with the scion cultivar itself used as an interstock. No influence on fruit size occurred. Similar results were noted with Olea chrysophylla Lamk. as an interstock but with severe constriction of the interstock tissue.
Controlled low temperature chilling caused flower initiation in container-grown olive (Olea europaea L.) trees at any time of the year. Optimum inflorescence production under controlled conditions occurred after exposure for 70 to 80 days to a diurnal sine wave temperature pattern, with a 2°C minimum and a 15°C maximum. These same temperatures, but changing abruptly from one to another failed to cause inflorescence formation. A constant intermediate temperature of 12.5°C was also effective in causing flower formation, but a continuous constant low temperature (7°C), or continuously high temperatures above 15°C failed to cause infloresence formation. The cv. Ascolano produced inflorescences under a wider range of temperature patterns than did ‘Manzanillo’.
Irregular bearing behavior of olives in California's Central Valley could not be attributed to varying winter chilling patterns. There was no correlation over a 7-year period between amount of winter chilling and subsequent crop size. Sufficient chilling occurs even in warmest winters there for ample flower initiation.
Foliar applications of 2-chloroethyl-tris-(2-methoxy ethoxy)-silane (CGA 13586) caused abscission of olive fruits and, to much lesser extent, leaves due to its release of ethylene upon contact with water. Maximum reduction in fruit removal force occurred 7 to 8 days after application and seemed to be a direct effect on the abscission layer. The ethylene-releasing reaction rate was affected by the solution pH, increasing with higher pH values. Lower pH (ca. 6) gave greater abscission than did higher pH levels since the compound presumably hydrolyzed too rapidly in the latter for the ethylene released to cause abscission. CGA 13586 produced considerably higher initial ethylene release in comparisons with (2 chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) but it was not as long lasting.
Following the application of 2-chloroethyl-tris-(2-methoxyethoxy)-silane (CGA 13586), an ethylenereleasing compound, to olive (Olea europaea L.) shoots, 2 abscission zones were observed. One occurred at the proximal, the other at the distal end of the pedicel. Actual separation occurred mostly at the distal end of the pedicel. Changes observed during the development of the abscission zone included: cell plasmolysis, cell wall and middle lamella dissolution, starch grain accumulation and a general breakdown of cells at the abscission zone.
Cycloheximide (CHI) at 20 to 30 ppm caused olive fruit abscission, and at higher concn, leaf abscission. Water potential in the tree was a strong factor influencing CHI-induced abscission. Reducing water loss by the prior application of antitranspirants (AT) greatly increased abscission due to cycloheximide. In addition, AT stimulated ethylene production resulting from CHI application. Prior application of a wax-type antitranspirant reduced fruit injury from cycloheximide. Increasing temp, from 4.5°C to 29.5°C (40° to 85°F), stimulated abscission due to cycloheximide. Up to 25% leaf abscission was tolerated without interfering with subsequent flower formation.
Applications of 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (Ethrel) at 2,250 ppm to olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under warm, low humidity conditions caused a considerable reduction in fruit removal force along with marked increases in leaf abscission and in ethylene evolution from both leaves and fruit. The addition of urea at 1.35% to the spray formulations caused a strong increase in ethylene production and in abscission effects. Definite cultivar differences appeared in response to Ethrel. An Auxin, NAA, blocked Ethrel activity, particularly if applied before, or simultaneously with, Ethrel. If applied 2 or 3 days after Ethrel, NAA reduced leaf abscission while maintaining fruit abscission. Rains following shortly after Ethrel application greatly reduced its activity in both ethylene production and abscission induction. Abscission effects from Ethrel were greater under warm than cool conditions.
Cycloheximide at 50, 100, and 200 ppm applied during cool, humid weather caused ethylene production from olive leaves and fruits as well as a reduction in fruit removal force and an increase in leaf abscission. However, ethylene evolution and abscission effects were much less than those obtained with Ethrel.
Gibberellic acid (GA) applied as an aqueous spray to 4-year-old ‘Ascolano’ olive trees at concentrations of 250 or 500 ppm promoted shoot growth, mainly through internode elongation. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) at the same concentrations caused curling of young leaves and suppressed terminal bud growth for 10 to 14 days. Shoot growth promotion by GA was counteracted by IAA.
GA at 100, 250 or 500 ppm significantly promoted xylem differentiation and development in newly developed regions of olive shoots. GA + IAA, both at 250 or 500 ppm, had a synergistic effect. IAA at all concentrations had no effect in this respect. Xylem lignification was normal in all treated shoots. It is suggested that the endogenous gibberellin level was the limiting factor for xylem development and that a certain balance between auxin and gibberellin is required to stimulate cambial activity with subsequent xylem development. Secondary phloem development was not influenced by IAA and/or GA. GA alone or in combination with IAA stimulated precocious periderm formation