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  • Author or Editor: Harold F. Wilkins x
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Abstract

In the May 1971 issue of Smithsonian I read that Neanderthal man evidently used flowers in some manner to honor his dead, since pollen counts were higher than average in the soil near the burial place, particularly around the head. One wonders whether these men were first to place a flower stem into water, some 60,000 years ago, in order to prevent wilting. Indeed, have we progressed enough in all these years in developing and disseminating information on the proper care of harvested flowers? I fear the answer is, “No!” I would venture to say that in this very metropolitan area that not more than 30% of the flowers locally grown or shipped ever see an ounce or even 1 ppm of a floral preservative, much less a clean sterile water bucket in the wholesaler's or retailer's refrigerators on their long tortuous journey to the consumer.

Open Access

Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White') bulbs were exposed to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks of cold before shoot emergence; 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks of long days (LD) upon shoot emergence; or a combination of cold followed by LD: 1/5 (weeks cold/weeks LD), 2/4,3/3,4/2, or 5/1. Experiments were repeated for three consecutive years. LD did not substitute equally for cold; at least 3 weeks of cold were required before LD treatments resulted in anthesis. Depending on the year, 100% of the plants flowered when treated with 3 to 6 weeks of cold alone or in combination with LD. Days to first flower anthesis from planting increased with decreasing weeks of cold in years 1 and 3, but was similar for all treatments in year 2. Decreasing weeks of cold in combination with LD, however, decreased days to anthesis in years 1 and 2, but had no effect in year 3. Regardless of LD, days from emergence to visible bud increased with decreasing weeks of cold in all years, and days to emergence from placement in the greenhouse increased with decreasing cold in years 1 and 3, but not in year 2. Increasing weeks of cold, regardless of LD, decreased leaf count, but had no effect on plant height. Flower count was unaffected by cold when combined with LD, but was significantly reduced by increasing weeks of cold.

Free access

Easter lily bulbs (Lilium longiflorum `Nellie White') were given 6 weeks of cold, placed in the greenhouse and subsequently divided into groups based on emergence date after placement in the greenhouse: 0-6, 7-13, 14-20 and 21-27 days. At emergence bulbs received 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks of long days (LD). Late-emerging plants had fewer days to visible bud and anthesis from emergence than early-emerging plants; consequently, late-emerging plants flowered within 3-10 days of early emerging plants despite 14-21 days difference in emergence time. Late emerging plants were tallest and middle emerging plants had the highest leaf number. Increasing LD tended to decrease numbers of days from emergence to visible bud and anthesis and increase plant height. LD did not effect leaf or flower number. Interactions between LD and emergence date will be discussed. Experiment was repeated for three consecutive years.

Free access

Abstract

The uncertainty of continuous supplies and the rapid increase in fossil fuel costs in recent years are serious threats to the nation’s greenhouse industry, especially in northern climates. Temporary fuel shortages for only a few hours during cold weather will destroy many greenhouse crops and bring immediate economic disaster to the individual independent operator. Costs have skyrocketed, and even in the relatively warm state of Florida, greenhouse operators using oil have experienced over 500% cost increases in the past 5 years and are spending as much as $25,000 per ha ($10,000 per acre) for fuel. Continued cost increases could bring about a major shift in the geographical location of greenhouse and related horticulutral industries from northern locations to the southern latitudes of the U.S., or even into the subtropical and tropical regions of the Caribbean area and Central and South America.

Open Access

Abstract

Early winter flowering of Alstroemeria ‘Regina’ plants was accomplished by a long-day, high-pressure sodium vapor lamp (HPS) treatment before the low 5°C temperature induction treatment. This HPS treatment predisposed the plants to respond to a subsequent long photoperiod treatment during winter. Winter generative shoot yield was increased by 35% through the use of HPS pretreatment. Stem length increased as the duration of the HPS treatment prior to cold induction increased.

Open Access

Abstract

Phytochrome decay and reversion were measured in excised inner scales of Lilium longiflorum. Total phytochrome decreased by 25% in 4 hours after the initial 10 minute red light treatment. There was dark reversion of the phytochrome pigment from the far-red absorbing form to the red absorbing form.

Open Access

Abstract

Treatment of inner daughter scales of lily bulbs with red or far-red light significantly accelerated shoot emergence. A red or far-red treatment from 2200-0200 accelerated emergence after a red or dark treatment from 0800-1600. A red or far-red treatment from 2200-0200 after a far-red treatment from 0800-1600 delayed emergence when compared to a far-red, dark treatment sequence.

Open Access

Various durations of rooting at 15C and storage at 5.X and exogenous GA, (1000 ppm) application were used on dormant unrooted peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) tubers of `Sarah Bernhardt', `Festiva Supreme' `Krinkled White', and `Scarlet O'Hara'. Four weeks of cooling were sufficient to break dormancy. Days to emergence, first bud color, and anthesis were reduced as the length of cold storage increased from 4 to 20 weeks. Height and number of shoots emerging per pot increased with increased cooling. All flower buds aborted when tubers were cooled for 20 weeks. When noncooled tubers were given a 1000-ppm GA, soil drench, shoots emerged within 7.5 days; untreated tubers failed to emerge after 5 months. When tubers were treated with GA,, all flower buds aborted.

Free access