The antifungal properties of a hydrophobic neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed extract (clarified neem oil) were tested against three postharvest apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pathogens—Botrytis cinerea (pers.) ex Fr. (gray mold), Penicillium expansum Thom. (blue mold rot), and Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Schrenk. (bitter rot). The antifungal activity of neem seed oil also was compared to that of CaCl2. A 2% aqueous emulsion of the clarified neem seed oil was moderately fungicidal to B. cinerea and G. cingulata in inoculated fruit, but bad little activity against P. expansum. Ethylene production was reduced 80% in fruit dipped in 2% neem seed oil compared to wounded, inoculated controls. Neem seed oil was as effective an antifungal agent as CaCl2, but the effects of the two combined were not additive.
Four seedlings derived from 3 cultivars of Coleus Χ hybridus Voss and C. blumei Benth were injured when exposed to 5°C for 24, 32, or 48 hours. An exposure of 32 hours or longer increased the foliar damage of chilled seedlings. In the case of ‘Harlequin’ and ‘Weimar Buckley’ seedlings, chilling injury was apparent during or immediately following the 24, 32, and 48 hours chilling exposure. One selection of ‘Red Rainbow’ displayed no symptoms of chilling injury following the 24-hour treatment, and only minor injury after 32- and 48-hour exposure. The other selection was only slightly more sensitive following these treatments. Seven days after a 48-hour exposure at 5°, 100% of the terminal buds of ‘Red Rainbow’ and ‘Weimar Buckley’ seedlings were dead, but no damage was evident on terminal buds of ‘Harlequin’ seedlings. No apparent injury was observed in any seedlings when exposed to 10° for as long as 48 hours.