Vegetable soybeans (Glycine max), the same species as field-dried soybeans, have similar production requirements and good market potential for commercial producers in upper midwestern United States. Five vegetable soybean cultivars were tested for yield and quality characteristics and to assess the necessity of field irrigation during 2003 and 2004 in North Dakota. Cultivars of different maturity dates were evaluated for stand densities, pod production, seed weight, and marketable yield. Total marketable yields varied between the years, ranging from 5773 to 10,118 lb/acre. Lower yields in 2003 were attributed to significantly lower population stands caused by poor germination conditions. `Envy', the earliest maturing cultivar, produced a significantly smaller seed size, while `Sayamusume' produced a greater seed size than the other cultivars both years. `Butterbean', `IA1010', and `IA2062' yielded greater percentages of three-bean pods than the other two cultivars each growing season. Irrigation did not increase the marketable pod yield or the quality variables examined each season; thus it appears that rainfall during the growing season may be adequate for vegetable soybean production in this region.
Field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting configurations (raised bed and no bed) and reservoir tillage on onion (Allium cepa) yield and grade when a cereal grass or cool-season broadleaf species was used as a companion crop. Total onion yield, the number of plants harvested, percentage of single centers, and cull-sized bulb yields did not differ among planting configurations. However, planting onion seed in raised beds with reservoir tillage resulted in more large-diameter bulbs compared to planting without a bed configuration. Raised beds also had fewer small-sized bulbs than the non-bed configuration. Companion crop influence on onion yield and grade varied among environments (location plus year). In general, canola (Brassica napus) as a companion crop increased the yield of small-sized bulbs and decreased total yield and the yield of large-sized bulbs. These results were attributed to poor canola control from the initial bromoxynil plus oxyfluorfen application because each label restricts application until onions have reached the two true-leaf stage. Onion yield and grade with barley (Hordeum vulgare) as a companion crop was similar to that of onion with no companion crop except during 2002 (Carrington) when rain delayed the postemergence grass herbicide application and lowered onion yield.
Elemental sulfur is commonly applied for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) protection on winegrape (Vitis sp.). The product may be used in a diversified, integrated disease management system to help prevent fungicide resistance to products with other modes of action. Additionally, sulfur may be used as a control option in organic systems. Applications of sulfur have been known to cause phytotoxic injury to susceptible winegrape cultivars, particularly those stemming from fox grape (Vitis labrusca) parentage. To improve recommendations to producers in the northern Great Plains region of the United States, a comparison of injury incidence and severity, as well as effects on yield characteristics was undertaken for 13 regional cultivars exposed to three sulfur rates (0, 2.4, and 4.8 lb/acre a.i.) at a North Dakota State University Research Station near Absaraka, ND. Overall, four cultivars (Bluebell, Baltica, Sabrevois, and King of the North) of the 13 cultivars tested showed phytotoxic symptoms. Injury severity and incidence of these cultivars differed between years and across rates. ‘Bluebell’ showed consistent and severe sulfur injury symptoms. Injury to the other three susceptible cultivars tended to vary by the given environment, with King of the North generally showing the lowest injury response. Injury symptoms were not found to be associated with the overall yield or cluster weight. Results suggest that alternative spray programs that exclude sulfur-based fungicides should be recommended for ‘Bluebell’, ‘Baltica’, ‘Sabrevois’, and ‘King of the North’, whereas sulfur-based fungicides may be applied to ‘Alpenglow’, ‘ES 12-6-18’, ‘Frontenac’, ‘Frontenac Gris’, ‘La Crescent’, ‘Marquette’, ‘Somerset Seedless’, ‘St. Croix’, and ‘Valiant’. Observations on fruit ripening in 2014 suggest that future research is needed to determine if a reduction of fruit quality may occur in some seasons with repeated sulfur applications or with successive annual sulfur applications for susceptible cultivars if used in an organic production system.