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  • Author or Editor: Glenn Wehtje x
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Experiments were conducted in Auburn, AL, and Aurora, OR, to evaluate herbicides for pre-emergence liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) control. Granular pre-emergence herbicide efficacy varied by location and product. Summarizing across all experiments, flumioxazin and oxadiazon provided the most effective control in Alabama, whereas flumioxazin and oxyfluorfen + oryzalin provided the most effective control in Oregon. Sprayed quinoclamine provided pre-emergence liverwort control, but efficacy and duration of control were reduced compared with granular herbicides.

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Herbicide use is an important component of weed management in field nursery crops. No single herbicide controls all weed species. Oxyfluorfen, simazine, and isoxaben are preemergence herbicides effective against broadleaf weeds. Oryzalin, pendimethalin, and prodiamine are effective in preemergence control of grasses and some small-seeded broadleaf weeds. Metolachlor is the only herbicide currently labeled for nursery crops that is effective in preemergence nutsedge (Cyperus) control. Fluazifop-butyl, sethoxydim, and clethodim are selective postemergence herbicides used for grass control. Glyphosate, paraquat, and glufosinate are nonselective postemergence herbicides used in directed spray applications for broad-spectrum weed control. Bentazon, halosulfuron, and imazaquin are effective postemergence nutsedge herbicides. These herbicides are discussed with respect to their chemical class, mode of action, labeled rates, and current research addressing their effectiveness in nursery crops.

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Two commonly used management practices for weed control in container plant production are hand pulling and herbicide applications. There are problems associated with these methods including crop phytotoxicity and environmental concerns associated with off-target movement of herbicides. Other nonchemical weed control methods could reduce herbicide-based environmental concerns, mitigate herbicide-resistance development, and improve the overall level of weed control in container nursery production. Readily available tree-mulch species, eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), ground whole loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) were harvested, chipped, and evaluated at multiple depths with and without the herbicide dimethenamid-p. Pine bark mini-nuggets were also evaluated. Mulches were applied at depths of 1, 2, and 4 inches and evaluated over three 30-day periods for their effectiveness in suppressing spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata), long-stalked phyllanthus (Phyllanthus tenellus), and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata). After 30 days, herbicide/mulch combinations, as well as mulch treatments alone, had reduced weed fresh weight 82% to 100% with 1 inch of mulch. By 168 days after treatment, dimethenamid-p had lost all efficacy, and mulch depth was the only factor that still had significant effects, reducing spotted spurge fresh weight by 90%, 99.5%, and 100% with depths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, respectively. The economics of mulch weed control will depend on variables such as available time, nursery layout, location, and availability of resources, equipment, among others. Regardless of variable economic parameters, data from this study reveals that any of these potential mulch species applied at a depth of at least 2 inches will provide long-term weed control in nursery container production.

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