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G. J. Keever, G.S. Cobb and W.J. Foster

Plant response to time of transplanting from 0.53-qt (OS-liter) to l-gal (3.8-liter) containers was influenced by cultivar and severity of winter. Transplanting of `Formosa' from Sept. through Dec. 1983 resulted in injury and death of many plants due to a low temperature of 8F (-13.3C) in Dec. 1983. Injury or death of `Hino Crimson' was higher when plants were transplanted in December. Survival and growth indices of both cultivars were higher when transplanted in January through March. During 1986-87, when minimum temperature was 26F (-3.3C), transplanting between September and April had minimal effect on growth of `Formosa', but plant quality was better when plants were transplanted between December and April. Transplanting date had little effect on size of `Hino Crimson', except smaller plants were produced when transplanted in April; quality was highest of plants transplanted from November through March.

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D.C. Fare, C.H. Gilliam and G.J. Keever

Improved water use efficiency exists for plants grown in modified containers to minimize leaching and reduce irrigation frequency which subsequently reduces NO3-N leachate. Salvia splendens `Bonfire' and Impatiens wallerana `Pink' (super elfin hybrid) were potted in ProMix BX medium (Premier Brands, Inc., Stamford, CT) into nine container styles with modified drainage holes to determine leachate volume and quantify NO3-N leached. Three styles had four drainage holes on the container side with hole diameters of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.9 cm, respectively; three styles had four drainage holes on the container side and one drainage hole in the bottom center with hole diameters of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.9 cm, respectively; and three styles had one drainage hole in the bottom center with hole diameters of 0.5, 1.6, and 1.9 cm, respectively. Plants were hand watered when an individual container's medium reached 80% of container capacity. Leachate volume, irrigation frequency, and leachate NO3-N was reduced as drainage size hole decreased in size and number. Plant quality was similar among container modifications.

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C.K. Palmer, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever, J.W. Olive and D.J. Eakes

Pampas grass seedlings in 72-cell pack containers were transplanted into containers with a root observation window (17.8 × 10.2 cm) and treated with selected preemergence applied herbicides. Root numbers were counted in the upper and lower 8.9 cm of the viewing window until 16 days after treatment (DAT) when the windows became full of roots. Root growth in both the upper and lower window was suppressed with application of Factor 65 WG and Pendulum 60 WDG at the X and 2X rates at 16 DAT. Ronstar 2G and Pendulum 2G at the recommended rates and nontreated control plants had similar root numbers at 16 DAT. At 16 DAT, the greatest number of club roots formed on plants treated with the dinitroaniline herbicides; Pendulum 2G, Pendulum 60 WDG, and Factor 65 WG. Shoot growth was not affected by treatment.

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D.J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever and J.W. Olive

Uniform liners of Soft Touch Holly (Ilex crenata 'Soft Touch') and Fashion azalea {Rhododendron 'Fashion') were potted into trade gallon containers of a 3: 1 by volume pinebark: peat moss medium amended with 8.3 kg of 17-7-12 Osmocote and 0.9 kg of Micromax per m3. Dolomitic limestone rates were 0,3, and 6 kg per m3 of medium applied as a finely ground or pelletized product. Medium solution pH increased with increasing rate of dolomitic limestone. Ground dolomitic limestone had a greater impact on medium solution pH than pelletized dolomitic limestone and differences increased as rate increased. Addition of ground dolomitic limestone at 6 kg per m3 reduced foliar color and growth of azalea. Amending with dolomitic limestone had little or no effect on holly foliar color or growth, regardless of rate.

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T.J. Brass, G.J. Keever, C.H. Gilliam and D.J. Eakes

Red maple cultivars 'October Glory' and `Northwood' were grown in 7 gallon containers to determine the influence of styrene lining and copper coating of containers on container medium temperature and growth of red maple cultivars. Copper coating effectively reduced circling of roots at the container wall-medium interface. Root control with copper was less effective on `October Glory' (a more vigorous cultivar) than on `Northwood'. Height, caliper, and root dry weight also were less for `Northwood'. In the absence of copper, surface-root coverage was greater in foam - lined containers than in containers without foam where temperatures averaged 10°C higher.

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J. L. Sibley, D. J. Eakes, C. H. Gilliam, G. J. Keever and W. A. Dozier Jr.

Average leaf area (LA) and petiole length (PL) was determined for 13 red maple selections May–Sept. 1993. Bloom types were determined based on the predominate flower structures present in Spring 1993 and 1994. Leaves were collected from an existing field study installed in Mar. 1990. Trees were drip-irrigated throughout the study, thereby eliminating moisture stress concerns. Acer×freemanii `Scarsen' (LA = 131.5 cm2), `Morgan' (LA = 93.6 cm2), and `Autumn Blaze' (LA = 83.9 cm2) had the largest leaves. Acer rubrum `Autumn Flame' (LA = 40.0 cm2) had the smallest leaves. Acer rubrum `October Glory' (PL = 17.1 cm) had the longest petioles followed by `Fairview Flame' (PL = 15.4 cm). Shortest cultivar petioles were on A. rubrum `Franksred' (PL = 9.3 cm) and `Tilford' (PL = 9.3 cm). Flowers were predominately pistillate on `Autumn Flame', `Franksred', `Morgan', `October Glory', `Redskin', `Scarsen', and `Schlesingeri'. Flowers were predominately staminate on `Fairview Flame', `Karpick', `Northwood', and `Tilford'. `Autumn Blaze' did not exhibit flowers in 1993 or 1994. Some seedlings in the study were pistillate, and others were staminate.

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R.B. Hardin, D J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam and G.J. Keever

In a full-sun Auburn, Ala., field study, 23 cultivars and 1 forma of Cornus florida L. were evaluated for growth from 1994 to 1996 and bract characteristics in Spring 1996. The selections were divided into three groups for analyses: 1) white bracted with green foliage, 2) red or pink bracted with green foliage, and 3) variegated foliage. Among the white bracted cultivars with green foliage, `Weaver' and `Welch Bay Beauty' had the greatest height and stem diameter increases, `Autumn Gold' the least. `Cloud 9' had the largest bract size. `Welch's Junior Miss' had the greatest height increase, while `Stokes' Pink' had the greatest stem diameter increase for the red or pink bracted cultivars with green foliage, and f. rubra the least. `Red Beauty' had the largest bract size. There were no differences among the variegated cultivars in height increase or bract size; however, `First Lady' had the greatest stem diameter increase.

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K.M. Ryan, J.H. Edwards, C.H. Gilliam and G.J. Keever

Blue color development in Hydrangea macrophylla is usually accomplished by applying Al as an alum drench. Drenches are applied during forcing 10–14 days after transplanting at a rate of 17,500 mg·L-1. Cultivars Blue Wave and Nikko Blue were used to evaluate if the Al contained in waste paper can provide the necessary Al for blue flower development. Two waste paper forms, pelletized and crumble, were used as surface mulches and as media amendments. The amendments were incorporated into the media at transplanting and mulches were applied either at transplanting or 28 days later. Alum drenching was initiated at transplanting as a control. Leachates were collected weekly using the VTEM. Total Al, electrical conductivity, and pH were determined on all samples. All waste paper treatments resulted in pink flowers in both cultivars. Leachate pH, from plants in this test, was >6.5. Aluminum concentration was greater than the 15 mg·L-1 Al needed for blue color development in flowers, but Al concentration decreased with time. Control of pH at the waste paper surface and in the media is critical for increasing the availability of labile Al for uptake by hydrangea.

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D.C. Fare, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever and J.T. Touchton

Water samples containing 0, 2.5, 10.0, or 20.0 ppm nitrate and ammonia were evaluated under 3 temperatures (0, 6, 20C) plus or minus sulfuric acid (36N) for changes in concentration. Ammonia and nitrate levels were measured 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks after storing. Response to storage conditions was the same regardless of acid or concentration of ammonia or nitrate. Nitrate concentrations in the storage locations were similar for the first 2 weeks. Afterwards, treatments stored at room temperature fluctuated from initial standards. With ammonia, frozen samples had the greatest deviation from initial standards during the first 4 weeks. By week 24, ammonia samples stored at room temperature had exceeded acceptable deviations from the standards. Nitrate and ammonia samples held in refrigeration had the least fluctuation during the 32 week storage period.

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D.M. Lauderdale, C.H. Gilliam, D.J. Eakes and G.J. Keever

Two tree species, Acer rubrum `October Glory' (October Glory red maple) and Quercus phellos (willow oak) were planted in Columbus, GA and Mobile, AL. Variables evaluated were location (park vs residential) and tree size (1.5 vs 3.0 inch caliper). Greater shoot elongation occurred with 1.5 inch red maples and willow oaks than with 3.0 inch caliper trees. First year growth differences were not related to photosynthesis, night respiration, leaf water potential, or foliar nitrogen levels. Little height or caliper change occurred with either species. Red maple shoot elongation was greater in Mobile than into Columbus. Growth was not affected by location within either city.