Field studies conducted over two growing seasons were designed to study the effects of reclaimed water on the development of 1-and 2-year old `Redblush' grapefruit trees (Citrus paradisi Macf.) on Swingle citrumelo rootstock. Experiments were conducted at two locations on Kanapaha and Arredondo fine sands and treatments were arranged in a 3×3 factorial experiment. Treatments included reclaimed water, well water plus fertigation and reclaimed water plus fertigation, which received <0.023, 0.23 and 0.23kg N/tree/yr in 1990, and <0.034, 0.34 and 0.34kg N/tree/yr in 1991, respectively. In addition irrigation was applied at 20% soil moisture depletion, 1.5 cm/wk and 2.5 cm/wk for 31 weeks in 1990 and 39 weeks in 1991. Tree growth and vigor were greatest for the reclaimed water plus fertigation based on visual ratings and trunk diameter measurements and lowest for reclaimed water alone, where leaves exhibited visual signs of N deficiency. No differences in tree growth or vigor were observed among irrigation rates. Similar results were observed at both experimental locations.
M.A. Maurer and F.S. Davies
J.J. Ferguson and F.S. Davies
Young `Hamlin' orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were fertilized six times/year with water-soluble N fertilizer at recommended rates (0.20, 0.34, and 0.38 kg N/tree per year) and with controlled-release fertilizer one time/year [Osmocote, IDBU, and a 44.5% urea-N fertilizer coated with a sulfonated ethylene-propylene-diene polymer (Sherritt, Inc.)] at 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 kg N/tree per year for years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were no differences in trunk diameter, tree height, or tree rating among treatments in any year, although there was a slight reduction in tree rating for some trees with biuret symptoms in the Sherritt treatment in year 2. Leaf nitrogen content was acceptable for all treatments in all 3 years, except for the Osmocote treatment in year 2, which had low to deficient levels. Levels of other nutrients were all within acceptable ranges, except for low potassium levels for the Osmocote in year 2. There were no significant differences in yields of young trees in year 3, the first bearing year. Given its 44.5% N analysis, the total amount of Sherritt controlled-release fertilizer applied to young citrus trees was 4% that of the standard, water-soluble fertilizer and from 39% to 45% that of the two other controlled-release fertilizers in years 1, 2, and 3.
F.S. Davies, M.W. Fidelibus, and C.A. Campbell
An experiment was conducted to determine if gibberellic acid (GA; ProGibb, Abbott Labs) can be mixed with Aliette or Agri-Mek and oil to reduce application costs, without reducing GA efficacy, and if Silwet and Kinetic adjuvants enhance GA efficacy. Five tank mixes were tested along with a nonsprayed control. The tank mixes included: 1) GA, 2) GA + Silwet, 3) GA + Kinetic, 4) GA + Silwet + Aliette, and 5) GA + Silwet + Agri-Mek + oil. All compounds were applied at recommended concentrations. In September, ≈24 L of each tank mix was applied with a hand sprayer to mature `Hamlin' orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock. Peel puncture resistance (PPR), peel color, and juice yield (percent juice weight) were evaluated monthly between Dec. 1997 and Mar. 1998. On most sampling dates the fruit of treated trees had higher PPR and were less yellow in color than fruit from control trees. However, in Jan., fruit treated with GA + Silwet and GA + Kinetic had greater PPR than other treatments. In Feb., fruit treated with GA + Silwet + Agri-Mek + oil had the lowest PPR. The effect of the different tank mixes on juice yield was usually similar to the effect of the tank mixes on PPR and peel color. On 8 Jan. 1998, fruit from trees treated with GA alone yielded significantly more juice than fruit from control trees. On 24 Feb. 1998, fruit from trees treated with GA alone yielded more juice than fruit from the other treatments. Thus, GA efficacy is generally not reduced by these tank mixes, nor improved by adjuvants.
F.S. Davies, M.W. Fidelibusa, and C.A. Campbell
Gibberellic acid (GA) applied in late summer or fall delays subsequent loss of peel puncture resistance (PPR) and development of yellow peel color in many citrus cultivars. Our objective was to determine the optimal time to apply GA for increasing juice yield of `Hamlin' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Mature trees on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock were sprayed with ≈24 L of a solution of GA (45 g a.i./ha) and organo-silicone surfactant (Silwet, 0.05%). Trees were sprayed on 26 Aug., 9 Sept., 2 Oct. (colorbreak), or 13 Oct. 1997, or nonsprayed (control). Peel puncture resistance, peel color, and juice yield were evaluated monthly between Dec. 1997 and Mar. 1998. Fruit from trees sprayed with GA had peels with higher PPR and less yellow color than fruit of control trees for most of the harvest season. The effect of GA on PPR and peel color lasted about 5 months. Juice yield was usually numerically greater for GA-treated fruit than for nontreated fruit. Fruit treated with GA at color break had significantly greater juice yield when harvested in late February than fruit from control trees. Thus, GA applied at color break appears to be the most effective time for enhancing peel quality and juice yield of `Hamlin' oranges.
L. Phavaphutanon, F.T. Davies Jr., and S.A. Duray
Cuttings of neem trees (Azadirachta indica) were grown for 65 days at four P levels: 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg P/kg soil. Half of the plants were inoculated with the vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) Glomus intraradices. VAM increased growth and net photosynthesis (A) at the lowest two soil P levels. Increased A was attributed to increased stomatal conductance (g) and greater leaf P concentration. Nonstomatal inhibition of A due to P deficiency also was observed in non-VAM plants at lower soil P levels. At higher soil P, VAM and non-VAM plants had comparable growth, A, g, and tissue concentration of P and other elements. VAM plants at 0 mg P/kg soil had similar growth and leaf P concentration when compared to non-VAM plants at 15 mg P/kg soil, yet had a 11% higher A, indicating a direct effect of VAM on gas exchange. As soil P increased, total VAM colonization and vesicle formation decreased, while the amount of extraradical hyphae increased. Arbuscule formation was highest at 0 and 15 mg P/kg soil. Apparently, arbuscules and extraradical hyphae play an important role in the enhanced growth and gas exchange of VAM plants at lower soil P levels.
L. Guazzelli, F.S. Davies, and J.J. Ferguson
Two experiments were conducted with containerized `Hamlin' orange trees (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb.) on `Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. × Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) rootstock to study the effects of N rate on growth of plants in the nursery. Treatments consisted of the following N rates: 12, 50, 100 and 200 mg·liter-1 applied once a week through drip irrigation. In Expt. 1, fertilization at the 200 mg·liter-1 rate resulted in greater scion growth, trunk diameter and total leaf dry weight as compared to the other rates. In Expt. 2, application of 100 and 200 mg·liter-1 rates resulted in greater scion growth and trunk diameter as compared to lower rates, but no differences were seen between the two highest rates. Trees receiving the 12 and 50 mg·liter-1 rates were stunted and leaves were chlorotic. Therefore, the optimum N rate for trees on `Swingle' citrumelo rootstock is between 100 and 200 mg·liter-1, although the 200 mg·liter-1 rate may not be economically justified. Moreover, the N rate for nursery plants growing on `Swingle' citrumelo rootstock in commercial medium may be higher than for other rootstocks, where rates less than 50 mg·liter-1 produce optimum growth.
L. Phavaphutanon, F.T. Davies Jr., and S.A. Duray
Growth recovery of mycorrhizal (VAM) and nonmycorrhizal (non-VAM) neem plants after drought exposure were followed under low phosphorus conditions. Drought significantly decreased plant growth regardless of mycorrhiza. Relative growth rate of droughted plants was greater than nondroughted plants during the growth recovery period, and compensated the loss of growth during the previous drought. VAM increased plant growth and improved regeneration of new roots outside the original root balls, particularly in plants previously exposed to drought. New roots of VAM plants were readily colonized by the VAM fungi, while those of non-VAM plants remained uncolonized. VAM growth enhancement after drought exposure was associated with greater uptake of phosphorus and other nutrients, and improved root regeneration.
M.A. Maurer, F.S. Davies, and D.A. Graetz
A field study was conducted on mature `Redblush' grapefruit trees (Citrus paradisi Macf.) on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock from 1991 to 1993 near Vero Beach, Fla. on poorly drained (flatwoods) soil to determine the effects of reclaimed water on leaf, soil and shallow well-water nutrients. Treatments consisted of a canal water applied based on soil moisture depletion, and reclaimed water applied at 23.1, 30.7 and 36.6 mm/wk. Reclaimed water treatments received supplemental fertilization in addition to the N present in the water. All treatments received about 130 kg/ha/yr N. Leaf tissue N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na concentrations were similar for all treatments, but B concentrations were significantly higher for the reclaimed water treatments in 1991 and 1993. Soil P and Na concentrations also increased in the reclaimed water treatments. Water samples taken from shallow depth wells showed that reclaimed water treatments had lower levels of NO, compared to the control possibly due to leaching. Reclaimed water contained only trace or undetectable levels of heavy metals.
L. Aguilera, F.T. Davies Jr, V. Olalde-Portugal, S.A. Duray, and L. Phavaphutanon
Seedlings of Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis were grown in pots containing a pasteurized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil inoculated or noninoculated with the V-A mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck et Smith. Long Ashton nutrient solution (LANS) was modified to supply P at 0, 11 or 44 μg·ml–1. Diurnal gas exchange measurements were taken 15, 30 and 50 days after the experiment was initiated. Plant growth, leaf elemental content, and mycorrhizal development were assessed 52 days after transplanting. Gas exchange and net photosynthesis were enhanced by mycorrhiza and full strength LANS fertilization (44 μg·ml–1). The symbiosis increased leaf nutrient content of P, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and Al. Mycorrhizal plants had higher shoot dry weights, leaf number, leaf area, and fruit primordia than nonmycorrhizal plants with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. Root colonization (arbuscules, vesicles, and internal and extraradical hyphae development) were higher with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. The quantity of spores recovered in soil was independent of P treatments.
L. Phavaphutanon, F.T. Davies Jr., T.W. Boutton, and S.A. Duray
Mycorrhizal (VAM) and phosphorus (P)-supplemented nonmycorrhizal neem plants (non-VAM) of comparable size and tissue nutrition were subjected to a slowly developing drought. VAM and non-VAM plants responded to drought similarly. However, mycorrhiza compensated for low P supply, allowing VAM plants to have comparable growth, tissue P, and other physiological parameters as non-VAM plants, which received higher P supply. Drought decreased growth, transpiration (E), photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and plant water status. Osmotic adjustment did not occur, but the relatively low osmotic potential of this species helped maintain turgor during drought. Plant water relations and A of stressed plants fully recovered in 24 hours after rehydration, while gs and E partially recovered. Instantaneous water use efficiency (A/E) increased during drought and recovery, except for a decrease at peak stress due to very low A. Carbon isotope discrimination (D) values of mature leaves remained constant regardless of mycorrhiza or drought. However, D decreased in expanding leaves that developed during a drought period, indicating an increased long-term water use efficiency of these leaves.