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  • Author or Editor: F. A. Bliss x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

The precision of a 9-plant hill-plot design in which plants were sown 15 cm apart in a 3 × 3 arrangement compared favorably to that of 3-m-row plots containing approximately 75 plants for the estimation of pod yield of snap beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. Quality traits and sieve size distribution based on pod diameter in both plot designs were similar. Using the square design, the entire 9-plant plot can be taken as the unit of selection, or single plant selection can be practiced when the test plant is grown in the center hill surrounded by 8 uniform guard plants. Single plant selection using this design has been used effectively to modify traits of beans having moderate to high heritability. Selection based on family means should be used for traits with low heritability. Efficiency of the hill-plot design is realized in terms of smaller plot size, fewer required seeds per plot and reduced harvest time.

Open Access
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Abstract

Four true bush snap bean cultivars were hybridized with OSC410, a determinate, sprawling ‘Blue Lake’ bush breeding line. Observed segregation data fit a single gene hypothesis with the sprawling habit completely dominant to true bush type. Crosses of OSC410 to 2 indeterminate cultivars provided evidence for 2 additional patterns of inheritance. When ‘Polaris’ was used as the indeterminate parent, segregation ratios indicated that indeterminance was dominant and controlled by a single gene. Epistasis of 2 genes was suggested from the cross Mexico 80R' (normal) × OSC410, with indeterminance dominant.

Open Access

Abstract

A male sterile bean plant was observed in the F2 population of WI 74-2047 × ‘Swedish Brown’. Male sterile phenotypes were characterized by all pollen grains being shriveled and non-functional, but with female fertility unaffected. Expression of sterility was genic, involving 2 unlinked loci, Ms 1 and In-ms 1, which interact to give a 13:2:1 F2 ratio of non-sterile:sterile:lethal individuals. ‘Swedish Brown’ contained fully fertile and semisterile plants, the latter presumed to be caused by the presence of a reciprocal translocation. One of the loci involved in male sterility is loosely linked to one of the break points of the translocation, and lines segregating for sterility but not semisterility were obtained.

Open Access

Abstract

Susceptibility to root rot in beans Phaseolus vulgaris incited by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. f.sp. phaseoli (Burk.) Snyd. & Hans, was dominant in crosses between resistant PI 203958 and susceptible cultivars ‘Cascade’, ‘Falcon’, ‘State Half Runner’ and ‘California Small White’. A quantitative inheritance pattern for disease reaction was observed. Selection of F2 plants showing slight disease symptoms resulted in F4 populations with a lower disease index than the unselected F2 population, indicating substantial gain. The results suggested that breeding methods such as recurrent selection, which are more suitable for improving quantitative traits than are backcrossing or pedigree selection, should be used to develop, Fusarium root rot resistant bean populations and cultivars.

Open Access

Abstract

Three populations of near-homozygous inbred backcross lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were produced using ‘Sanilac’ as the recurrent parent and 3 donor parents, ‘BBL 240’, 15R-148, and ‘Swedish Brown’. The method for producing inbred backcross lines included 2 successive backcrosses to the recurrent parent followed by 3 or 4 generations of self-fertilization using single seed descent. There was no conscious selection during the backcrossing or selfing stages. Lines were grown in the Held and analyzed for seed protein content, percentage of protein, seed yield, and seed size. In each population, the frequency of lines recovered having enhanced levels of phaseolin (compared to ‘Sanilac’) suggested that one or a few major genes (effective factors) for phaseolin had been contributed by the donor parent. In population 2, derived from ‘Sanilac’ crossed to ‘BBL 240’, there was evidence for possible linkage between enhanced phaseolin and the gene(s) controlling the electrophoretic banding pattern of the phaseolin polypeptide subunits. The nonprotein portion of the seeds of these lines was also less than that of the recurrent parent, resulting in generally smaller seeds. In contrast, some families in population 6 (donor 15R-148) having enhanced phaseolin also showed increased levels of the nonprotein constituents of the seed. Population 8 (donor ‘Swedish Brown’) was unique since lines with enhanced levels of phaseolin were recovered although the donor parent had a low phaseolin concentration (phaseolin/100 g flour) but large seeds with a high concentration of the nonprotein fraction. These results show that breeding lines with increased levels of phaseolin seed protein can be produced either directly by increasing the phaseolin concentration or indirectly by decreasing the nonprotein fraction of seed.

Open Access

Abstract

Four populations of inbred backcross lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), developed from crosses between ‘Sanilac’, the recurrent parent, and 4 donor parents (‘BBL 240’, 15R-148, ‘Swedish Brown’, and PI 229815), were analyzed for total seed protein percentage. In each population a substantial number of lines having significantly higher protein levels than ‘Sanilac’ were recovered. The basis for enhanced protein percentage was attributed to increased amounts (g/seed) of phaseolin and nonphaseolin protein, either singularly or together, and either with or without a decrease in the nonprotein seed fraction. Lines from different populations were characterized by different combinations of altered levels of the various seed fractions. Although seed size varied depending on the seed fractions present, no obviously shriveled seeds were observed. Lines having enhanced protein and seed yields comparable to or greater than the recurrent parent, ‘Sanilac’ were recovered.

Open Access

Abstract

Recurrent mass selection based on a desired gain index was employed to increase simultaneously seed yield and seed protein percentage in the common bean. Seed protein was increased from 21.9 to 24.6% after 2 cycles of selection. Mean seed yields of selected populations were not significantly greater than the mean of the unselected parents, but high yielding individual families were identified. Of particular interest was the family 2-4-1, with seed yields equal to the highest-yielding parent, and seed protein percentage higher than all parental lines in both years in which the experiments were conducted. Modifications in the selection procedure were proposed which should increase the efficiency of selection for seed yield.

Open Access

Abstract

A procedure using nutrient culture media was developed to screen bean seedlings on an individual plant basis for reaction to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. f. sp. phaseoli (Burk.) Snyd. & Hans. From over 800 accessions, 18 plant introductions and several cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris were found to be either resistant or tolerant. Susceptible plants, grown with ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source (210 ppm N) showed reduced symptoms compared to plants grown on nitrate-N only. Ammonium as the sole nitrogen source was toxic to bean seedlings at identical nitrogen concentrations. Results based on the nutrient culture technique were generally consistent with field reactions.

Open Access

Abstract

Ozone sensitivity was compared in F1 and F2 populations from crosses between 2 ozone-sensitive bean cultivars, ‘Spurt’ and ‘Blue Lake Stringless’, and 2 ozone-resistant cultivars, ‘Black Turtle Soup’ and ‘French’s Horticultural’, under controlled environmental conditions. F1 plants were as sensitive as the sensitive parent. About 10% of the F2 progeny obtained by selfing F1 plants appeared to be as resistant as the resistant parent and 90% of the progeny could be divided equally between a group as sensitive as the sensitive parent and a group intermediate in sensitivity between the parent plants. However, precise separation of F2 progeny was not possible because of the variability in injury expression. The average injury on the F2 plants was greater than the parental midpoint value and the variance in injury on the F2 plants was about 3.5x greater than that for the parents. The heritability of resistance to ozone was estimated to be 0.83. It was concluded that ozone resistance is recessive in P. vulgaris and appears to be regulated by a few major genes.

Open Access

Abstract

The inbred backcross line method was used to analyze the inheritance of fruit length and weight in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Two populations were produced by crossing a small-fruited, adapted breeding line as the recurrent parent with 2 unadapted and large-fruited lines as donor parents. Marker genes were used in both populations to test for Mendelian expectations. Segregation was normal for all markers in both populations. Nevertheless, significant deviations from binomial expectations occurred, indicating that there were difficulties in estimating gene number and genetic variance without bias. Heritability was moderately high for fruit length and intermediate for fruit weight in both populations. No major genes controlling fruit length or weight were detected using the inbred backcross line method, and only estimates of minimum gene number were obtained. Inbred backcross lines having fruit weight equal to or greater than the large-fruited donor parent were recovered in both populations. However, in neither population were lines recovered with fruit as long as those of the donor parent.

Open Access