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  • Author or Editor: Dewayne L. Ingram x
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This presentation focuses on driving forces and philosophies in the current Age of Accountability and explores ideas of how to respond. The increased scrutiny faced by all public agencies is requiring that Cooperative Extension approach the issue of accountability a bit differently. We must articulate our objectives and values to specific clientele groups, the general public, and government officials. Hard questions are being asked about past and anticipated return on tax dollars invested in state and federal agencies. The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 requires “performance based budgeting” for all federal agencies, including the USDA. Each federal agency must develop an action plan with well-defined objectives and anticipated impacts to justify the allocation of federal funds. The overriding theme is not how busy we are and how many activities we can report, but what has been the impact of our efforts.

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Abstract

This symposium was sponsored primarily by the Commercial Horticulture Working Group in the Extension Division of ASHS. The International Horticultural Congress provides an excellent opportunity for horticulturists, especially horticultural educators, from around the world to exchange experiences and ideas. Extension in the context of this symposium refers to the transfer of technology or the linkage from a research-based information pool to producers, processors, marketers, and consumers of horticultural commodities. Extension programs are expected to help ensure the adoption of appropriate technologies by individuals, groups, or segments of an industry. The primary goals of an extension program are to increase production, product quality, business profits, and/or the quality of life. This symposium involved uniquely qualified individuals in describing and contrasting model extension delivery systems from around the world.

Open Access

Abstract

White polyethylene bags were superior to black, 6 liter conventional containers for production of Cornus florida L., Rhododendron simsii Planch, cv. Formosa and Pittosporum tobira Banks in full sun. All 3 species grew best in 47% shade, where effects of container design were moderated Poly bags were brittle within 6 months in full sun and could not withstand rough handling.

Open Access

Root growth of Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary' was studied for 16 wk after an 8-wk exposure period to 30°, 34°, 38°, or 42°±0.8°C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied 6 hr daily, Immediately after the RZT treatment period, total root length was similar for trees exposed to 30°, 34°, and 38°C and was reduced 45% at 42° compared to 38°C. For weeks eight and 18 of the post-treatment period, response of total root length to RZT was linear. Total root length of trees exposed to 28°C was 247% and 225% greater than those exposed to 42°C RZT at week eight and 16, respectively. Root dry weight from the 42°C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38° and 34°C RZT treatment, respectively, at week eight. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42°C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38° and 34°C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks eight and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38°C treatment whereas growth suppression by the 42°C treatment was still evident after 16 wk. Previous exposure of tree roots to supraoptimal RZT regimens may have long-term implications for suppressing growth and lengthening the establishment period of trees in the landscape,

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Seeds of Sophora secundiflora (Ort.) Lag ex. DC. (mescal bean) were scarified with hot water or concentrated sulfuric acid to determine an optimal pretreatment for successful germination. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the acid scarification treatment removed the seed cuticle. One-year-old seeds were successfully stored and germinated ≈2 days sooner than from the current year if both were given an acid pretreatment. Germination rate increased as acid pretreatment time increased from 30 to 120 minutes. Soaking seeds in water at room temperature or in hot water (initially 93C) for 24 hours had no effect on germination.

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Root growth of southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary') was studied for 16 weeks after an 8-week exposure to 30, 34, 38, or 42 ± 0.8C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied for 6 hours daily. Immediately after RZT treatments, total root length of trees responded negatively to increased RZT in a quadratic pattern and the shoot and root dry weight of trees was similar. However, 8 and 16 weeks after RZT treatments, total root length responded linearly in a negative pattern to increased RZT, and shoot and root dry weight responded negatively to increased RZT in a linear and quadratic pattern, respectively. Root dry weight of trees exposed to 42C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38 and 34C RZT treatments, respectively, at week 8. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38 and 34C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks 8 and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38C treatment, whereas growth suppression by the 42C treatment was still evident after 16 weeks.

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Leaf photosynthesis of Magnolia grandiflora `St. Mary' (13-month-old rooted cuttings) was studied when tree roots were exposed to 28, 35, or 42 ± 0.8C for 8 weeks. Root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments were sustained for 6 hours per day by an electronically controlled root-heating system. The experiment was conducted in a 3×7.5-m walk-in growth room. Growth room irradiance was supplied by eighteen 1000-W, phosphor-coated metal-arc HID lamps (photosynthetic photon flux = 600 μpmol-2·-1 at canopy height) for 13 hours daily augmented with 3 hours of incandescent light during the dark period. Leaf C assimilation (A) at an RZT of 42C decreased linearly over 8 weeks compared to leaf A at RZTs of 35 and 28C. Leaf A was similar for all trees at week 1; however, leaf A at an RZT of 42C was 30% and 34% less than at RZTs of 3.5 and 28C, respectively, at week 8. Stomatal conductance at RZTs of 28 and 35C increased linearly over 8 weeks compared to conductance at a RZT of 42C. Intercellular CO2 levels were not affected by RZT treatments. This finding suggests that reductions in leaf A were nonstomatal. Photosynthetic inhibition resulted in reduced shoot and root growth. Operators of outdoor container production nurseries should implement cultural practices that minimize exposure of tree roots to RZTs >35C.

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Computer modeling was used to study the effect of container volume and shape on summer temperature patterns for black polyethylene nursery containers filled with a 4 pine bark: 1 sand (v/v) rooting medium and located in Phoenix, Ariz. (lat. 33.5°N, long. 112°W) or Lexington, Ky. (lat. 38.0°N, long. 84.4°W). For both locations, medium temperatures were highest at the east and west container walls, halfway down the container profile, regardless of container height (20 to 50 cm) or volume (10 to 70 liters). The daily maximum medium temperature (Tmax) at the center was lower and occurred later in the day as container volume was increased because of an increased distance to the container wall. For both locations, predicted temperature patterns in rooting medium adjacent to the container wall decreased as the wall tilt angle (TA) increased. Predicted temperature patterns at the center of the container profile were lowered in response to the interaction of increased container height and wall TA. As container height decreased, the container wall TA necessary to lower center Tmax to ≤ 40C increased; however, the required increase in TA was greater for Phoenix than for Lexington, principally because of higher ambient air temperatures.

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Ilex crenata Thunb. `Rotundifolia' split-root plants were grown for 3 weeks at root-zone temperatures of 30/30, 30/34, 30/38, 30/42, 34/34, 38/38 and 42/42. The 38 C root-zone temperature treatment was the upper threshold for a number of growth and physiological parameters. A portion of the root system grown at near optimum temperatures could compensate in terms of shoot growth for part of the root system exposed to supraoptimal root-zone temperatures up to the 38 C critical threshold. Higher root-zone temperatures did not affect photosynthetic rates or root:shoot ratios, but altered photosynthate partitioning to different stem and root sinks. Although no differences were found for total 14C partitioned to the roots, partitioning of the 14C into soluble and insoluble fractions and the magnitude of root respiration and exudation were influenced by treatment. Heating half of a root system at 38 C increased the amount of 14C respired from the heated side and increased the total CO2 respired from the non-heated (30 C) half. Exposure of both root halves to 42 C resulted in membrane damage which increased the leakage of 14C photosynthates into the medium.

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