The Allen Centennial Gardens are instructional gardens managed by the Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Twenty-two garden styles exist on the 2.5-acre (1.0-ha) campus site with a primary focus on herbaceous annual, biennial and perennial ornamental plants. The gardens are used for instruction mostly by the Department of Horticulture and secondly by departments of art, botany, entomology, landscape architecture, plant pathology, and soils. Class work sessions are limited due to the gardens' prominence on campus, high aesthetic standards, space restrictions, and large class sizes. Undergraduate students are the primary source of labor for plant propagation, installation and maintenance; management; and preparation of interpretive literature. Work experience at the gardens assists students with obtaining career advances in ornamental horticulture. Future challenges include initiating greater faculty use of the gardens for instruction and creating innovative ways to use the gardens to enhance instruction.
Rozlaily Zainol and Dennis P. Stimart
A double-flower form of Nicotiana alata Link & Otto was characterized genetically as a monogenic recessive trait expressed when homozygous. Reciprocal crosses demonstrated no maternal effect on expression of double flowers. A single dominant gene expressed in the homozygous or heterozygous state caused the single-flower phenotype. The symbol fw is proposed to describe the gene controlling double-flower phenotype.
Rozlaily Zainol and Dennis P. Stimart
Genetic analysis of a white double-flowering Nicotiana alata is being investigated. Self-pollination of the double-flowering plant produced all double progeny. Reciprocal hybridization of the double-flowered selection with N. alata cultivars produced nondouble F1 progeny that segregated 3:1 (nondouble to double) in the F2 generation. Reciprocal backcrosses of F1 plants to the parents resulted in nondouble progeny when backcrossed to the nondouble parent and 1:1 segregation when backcrossed to the double parent. Intercross of F1 plants resulted in progeny segregating 3:1. Double flowering habit has been transferred to white, red, salmon, green, and bicolor N. alata. Results suggest double flowering is under nuclear control regulated by a recessive allele.
Dennis P. Stimart and Kenneth R. Schroeder
Cut flowers of a short (S)-lived (3-day) inbred, a long (L)-lived (15-day) inbred and their hybrid (F1, 7.3 days) of Antirrhinum majus L. were evaluated for fresh weight and ethylene evolution change postharvest when held in deionized water. Fresh weight change of all accessions increased 1 day postharvest then declined over the remainder of postharvest life. The loss of fresh weight was most rapid for S and less rapid for F1 and least rapid for L. Ethylene release postharvest for S and F1 started on day 1, but for L ethylene release started on day 9. Once ethylene evolution began it continued through postharvest life. On the last day of postharvest life, ethylene release from S and F1 were similar, but L was twice the level as S and F1. It appears that a slower decline in fresh weight, a delay in outset of ethylene release and higher final amount of ethylene release at senescence are heritable and associated with longer keeping time of A. majus.
Dennis P. Stimart and Kenneth R. Schroeder
Efforts to improve postharvest longevity of fresh-cut flowers has only recently turned toward selection and breeding. Conventional methods to extend keeping longevity of cut flowers depend on use of chemical treatment placed in holding solutions. Postharvest longevity studies were initiated with Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) to determine: if natural genetic variation existed for cut-flower longevity, the inheritance of the trait, heritability, and associated physiology. Evaluation of commercial inbreds held in deionized water revealed a range in cut-flower longevity from a couple of days to 2.5 weeks. The shortest- and longestlived inbreds were used as parents in crosses to study the aforementioned areas of interest. Information will be presented on inheritance of cut flower longevity based on populations evaluated from matings for generation means analysis and inbred backcross method. Also presented will be information on stomata, transpiration, carbohydrate, fresh-weight change, and forcing temperature relative to postharvest longevity.
Wendy S. Higgins and Dennis P. Stimart
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Ace' bulblets generated in vitro at 25 or 30C were stored at 4C for O, 1, 2, 4, or 6 weeks after removal from culture and before planting to ascertain the effects of in vitro generation temperature and post-in vitro cold storage duration on bulblet growth responses during 36 weeks of greenhouse growth. Increasing post-in vitro storage duration decreased the number of days to first leaf emergence and percentage of plants producing shoots within 36 weeks, but increased the number of days to shoot emergence and anthesis, leaf number, and flower bud number. The length of time required for bulblet development from planting to shoot emergence was affected by storage duration more than periods from shoot emergence to visible bud and anthesis. It is feasible to produce high-quality L. longiflorum pot plants from in vitro-produced bulblets.
Kenneth R. Schroeder and Dennis P. Stimart
Genetics of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) cut flower postharvest longevity (PHL) was investigated by generation means analysis using a white short-lived inbred (WS) and white long-lived inbred (WL) to determine mode of inheritance and heritability. Broad and narrow sense PHL heritability was estimated at 78% and 30%, respectively. Scaling tests for adequacy of an additive-dominance model in explaining PHL inheritance suggested absence of epistasis. However, joint scaling indicated digenic or higher order epistatic interactions. Fitting of a digenic epistatic model revealed significant additive effects and nonsignificant dominance and epistatic interactions. Additionally, based on sequential model fittings all six parameters [mean, additive (a), dominance (d), a×a, d×d, and a×d] proved necessary to explain observed PHL variation. Continuous variation for PHL observed in the F2 and backcross generations suggests PHL is quantitative. Assessment of associated traits revealed a positive relationship between number of flowers opening postharvest on a cut flower and PHL. In addition, floret wilting led to short PHL while floret browning was associated with long PHL.
Dennis P. Stimart and James F. Harbage
The role of the number of adventitious roots of Malus domestics Borkh. `Gala' microcuttings in vitro on ex vitro root and shoot growth was investigated. Root initiation treatments consisted of IBA at 0, 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150 μm in factorial combination with media at pH 5.5, 6.3, and 7.0. IBA concentrations significantly influenced final root count and shoot fresh and dry weights, but not plant height, leaf count, or root fresh and dry weights at 116 days. Between 0 and 0.15 μm IBA, final root counts were similar, but at 1.5, 15, and 150 μm IBA, root counts increased by 45%, 141%, and 159%, respectively, over the control. The pH levels did not affect observed characteristics significantly. There was no significant interaction between main effects. A significant positive linear relationship was found between initial and final root count. The results suggest a limited association between high initial adventitious root count and subsequent growth. Chemical name used: 1 H -indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
William J. Martin and Dennis P. Stimart
On-plant floret longevity and cutflower postharvest longevity (PHL) of Antirrhinum majus L., snapdragon, were evaluated using inbreds P1 (16 day PHL) and P2 (6 day PHL), F1 (P1 × P2), F2 (F1 self-pollinated), F2 × F2 (among and within PHL categories: long, 17 to 25 days; middle, 9 days; and short, 2 to 3 days), and F3 families (F2 self-pollinated). F2 on-plant floret longevity and PHL correlated to later generation PHL. Prediction of progeny PHL from F2 × F2 matings appears feasible if genotypic value for PHL of F2 is known. Selection for PHL is best based on evaluation of multiple cutflowers per genotype. Significant additive and dominant genetic variance components contribute to PHL.
Dennis P. Stimart and William J. Martin
The time required to maintain plants on a standardized basis (effort) was investigated in 24 gardens of various plant composition over 5 years. Cluster analysis of data grouped gardens into five clusters based on magnitude and timing of effort. Plants grown in containers required up to 20 times more effort annually than plants grown in other gardens in ground beds. Gardens planted with annuals required about 80% less effort than container gardens but 75% more effort than other gardens evaluated. As the number of taxa in gardens decreased, effort decreased and was less variable throughout the year. Enumeration of effort in relation to garden composition should be used to project management cost for gardens.