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Abstract

Two formulations, 5G and 75WP, of methazole (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5 dione) applied at 1.7, 3.4 and 6.8 kg ai/ha effectively controlled Digitaria sanguinalis L. (large crabgrass) and Portulaca oleracea L. (common purslane) in container-grown Cotoneaster apiculata Rehd. & Wils., Euonymus kiautschovicus Loes. cv. Manhattan and Juniperus chinensis L. cv. San Jose. All rates of the 75WP formulation reduced the shoot and root dry wt of Cotoneaster and Euonymus.

Open Access

Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.

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Leaf area development and canopy structure are important characteristics affecting yield and fruit quality of grapevines. Trellising systems and wide row spacing are common viticultural practices that violate key assumptions of currently available indirect methods of leaf area determination. We have developed a protocol for using a commercially available instrument to determine leaf area index (LAI) indirectly in a trellised vineyard. From knowledge of plant spacing, leaf area per vine can be calculated as required. A derived calibration equation resulted in a near 1:1 relationship (y = 0.00 + 1.00 X; r2 = 0.998) between actual and indirectly determined LAI over a range of LAI induced by irrigation treatments. The protocol involved covering 75% of the sensor with a manufacturer-supplied field of view delimiter and masking data from the outer three (of five) concentric radiation sensors. The protocol could form the basis for a general measurement technique, but may require local calibration.

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Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), private applicators who purchase and use restricted use pesticides (RUP's) are required to obtain certification. The Cooperative Extension Service has been assigned the responsibility of informing and educating those applicators about the safe and precise use of pesticides. In Illinois, area Agriculture advisors are responsible for the training. They are supported by State staff. Support is provided to area advisors through development of several teaching medias. A Private Applicator Training manual is the main educational media. That is supported by a slide set and script, videos, demonstration kits, handouts, and overheads. Trainers are encouraged to have students use workbooks, which were developed to follow the slide set, during training sessions. Additional support is provided through a newletter, equipment and video loans, advertising, meeting site rental, and yearly program updates. Train-the-Trainer classes are provided as needed. Trainers have been surveyed as to the quality of exiting and the need for new educational materials. Examples of publications and teaching materials will be on display.

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The State Of Illinois passed legislation banning landscape wastes deposition in land fills. Approximately 18% of all solid wastes going into Illinois landfills were landscape wastes including grass clippings, branch prunings, leaves and wood. A cooperative program between the Horticulture Department, the Cooperative Extension Service and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources was initiated to train county extension advisers, municipalities, and the consuming public on methods for landscape waste reduction and recycling.

Workshops, video tapes, Master Composters, mobile displays, fact sheets and a model municipal composting facility were developed. Publications and other educational materials will be displayed.

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Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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Newspaper was pelletized and tested as a peat moss substitute in growing media used for producing bedding plants and woody ornamentals in containers. Varying amounts of urea was added to the newspaper prior to pelletization to improve the C:N ratio of the pellets Newsprint had a C:N ratio of 800:1. One quart of a 28% nitrogen solution per ton of paper consistently changed the C:N ratio to 400: 1 Additional quantities of the 28% N solution did not lower the C:N ration due to volatilization. The addition granular urea at 5.0 lbs. and 10.0 lbs. of urea per 300 lbs of newsprint altered the C:N ratio to 50:1 and 18:1 respectively. Media containing pelletized paper expanded about 40% in volume when water was added Following the first leaching electrical conductivity of the leachate was slightly elevated when compared to the check. In nine subsequent leachings the electrical conductivity was not significantly different than the check. The pH of the leachate averaged 7.2

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Food wastes were collected daily Monday through Saturday with approximately 25 tons of food waste delivered to the composting site each week. Collections sites included restaurants, super markets and a hospital. All food wastes were collected behind the counter to reduce paper and other extraneous materials. Food wastes were mixed with bulking agents in a ratio of 1 part leaves, 1 part woodchips to 1 part food waste by volume. Daily a bed of leaves and wood chips was prepared and covered with food waste, in rum the food wastes were capped with a mixture of wood chips and leaves to form a windrow. The windrow was turned three times a week with a scat style commercial compost turner. Oxygen content and temperature of the windrow were recorded daily. C:N ratio, pH, soluble nitrogen and volatile organic acids were determined monthly. At the end of the composting process, 90 days, Ni, Cd, Fe, Pb, Cr, Ar and Se levels in the compost were not present at toxic levels. Finished compost rested negative for salmonella and Fecal coliform pathogens.

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Shoot tip explants of Algerian Ivy Heder a canariensis were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with a combination of salt strength and NAA and IBA. More roots per explant developed on full salt strength medium combined with NAA. The most roots per explant were obtained with a combination of IBA and 1/4 MS salt. There was an inverse relationship between an increase in IBA or NAA concentration and root length and number. Shoots proliferated better on full MS salt combined with NAA and IBA. The highest level of NAA (40 uM) and 0.1 uM TDZ produced the most shoots and roots, the longest roots, the highest rooting percentage, the largest plants with the most leaves and the best callus quality per explant. The leaves from in vitro were cultured on MS medium with varying levels of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and NAA in the presence of light produced the highest number of roots.

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of various cultivars of Hosta ovary explants to generate adventitious shoots and obtain variegated plants in vitro. Immature inflorescences along with 8 to 10 cm of scape were harvested from Hosta cultivars. The ovaries were prepared for culture by cutting immature florets before anthesis. The florets were first cut just above the top of the immature ovary to remove the sigma, style, corolla, and anther. Then the calyx and filament bases were also removed. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to baby jars containing Hosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.5 mg/L and 6-benzylamino purine (BA). The explants produced adventitious shoots from ovary base via organogenesis. The number of shoots regenerated from shoot tips and callus increased linearly with repeatedf subculturing on MS medium. This method would provide an effective alternative to conventional propagation crown division of Hosta, an expensive and slow process. The long-term goal of this project is to improve Hosta.

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