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  • Author or Editor: Daryl G. Richardson x
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Ripening bananas (color stage 5) were placed in closed jars held at 20°C. Nitrogen (99.99%, 100 ml/min) or air were flowed through the jars. SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) was used for sampling dynamic headspace and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Several volatile compounds decreased with time in the nitrogen treatment. Production of isobutyl butyrate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, methyl heptanoate, pentyl acetate, and 2-pentanol which were present in air treatments, were absent in the nitrogen treatment. Ethanol rapidly increased until the last day. Off-flavors were detected by most panelists after three days of N2 treatment and off-flavors increased in the following days. Reversibility of off-flavor after exposing the bananas to air was not detected by panelists. Correlations were low between the main compounds in the nitrogen treatment and the off-flavor score.

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Abstract

Dormant ‘Viva’ rose bushes kept at 0° or 5°C were subjected to 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm ethylene for 4 weeks, then planted in containers and forced in the greenhouse. At planting, ethylene damage was not apparent, except to the plants exposed to the combination of 5° and 1000 ppm ethylene. However, after 5 weeks of growth, there was progressively more cane mortality and less budbreak as ethylene concentrations were increased, with more damage for the 5° than the 0° treatments.

Open Access

Abstract

‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) stored at −1°C for 125 days in 3% O2, or 153 days in 1% O2 storage had internal ethylene levels equal to those of air-stored fruit. Fruit softened faster during subsequent ripening at 20° after 1% or 3% O2 storage than after air storage. Endogenous ACC levels were 20 times higher in fruit stored in 1% or 3% O2 compared to air-stored fruit. Exogenous application of 5 mm ACC stimulated at 2-fold increase in ethylene production from 1% O2-stored fruit and a 4-fold increase in air-stored fruit. When 5 mm ACC, in combination with 0.05 mm cycloheximide (CHI), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, were supplied exogenously to disks cut from pears stored in air or 1% O2, the air-stored fruit produced 100 times more ethylene than 1% O2-stored fruit. Increased internal ethylene levels and accelerated softening during ripening of 1% or 3% O2-stored fruit suggests the need for rapid marketing of this fruit as compared to air-stored fruit. Chemical names used: 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC), 3-[2(3,5-dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl)-2-hydroxyethyl glutarimide (cycloheximide).

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Kernels in the shell were compared to bare kernels with pellicles, half nuts, blanched nuts, finely chopped nuts, and roasted nuts. Whole nuts and whole kernels were stable for up to two years of storage provided they had not been exposed to high temperatures. Nuts stored at low temperatures (0 and 5°C) did not lose significant amounts of vitamin E. Increasing surface area by dividing nuts or finely chopping them, increased the loss of vitamin E. Samples that had lower surface areas did not lose much vitamin E and peroxide value was low. Higher roasting temperatures caused losses in vitamin E and increased peroxide values at the beginning and during storage, even when stored at 0°C. Intact nuts and low storage temperatures did not show changes in fatty acid composition. High temperature treatments changed fatty acid composition, mainly decreasing linoleic initially and finally oleic acids.

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