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  • Author or Editor: D.J. Eakes. x
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Limited information exists for container production of red maple cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate first-year growth of container-grown `October Glory' at 3 locations with disparate climates in Georgia and Alabama (Tifton, Ga., Blairsville, Ga., and Auburn, Ala.). Rooted cuttings were planted in 9.2-L containers in one location in the same substrate in April 1995. Trees were transported to each location in mid-June and irrigated from overhead risers at 1.3 cm/day for 6 months until dormant, then transported to a single location for harvest. Despite weather differences among locations, final heights were not different (Blairsville 59.8 cm; Auburn 53.0 cm; and Tifton 60.2 cm). Shoot diameter increase and shoot dry weight was greatest at Tifton (8.4 mm, 17.5 g), least at Blairsville (6.3 mm, 9.2 g), with Auburn similar to both locations (6.8 mm, 12.2 g). Root dry weight and root: shoot ratio was greater in Tifton (17.2 g, 0.97) than Blairsville 14.9 g, 0.51) and Auburn (7.0 g, 0.64).

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Two cultivars of blackberry (Rubus sp.) were propagated in July under intermittent mist by rooting 2-node softwood stem cuttings. Differences in root development among cultivars were evident with the thornless erect cultivar, `Navaho', producing a better root system than the thorny erect cultivar, `Cheyenne'. Treatment of `Navaho' with 3000 and 8000 ppm indolebutyric acid (IBA) in water and treatment of `Cheyenne' with 8000 ppm IBA in water and 3000 ppm IBA in talc improved rooting.

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Strong academic abilities and practical work experience are important to employers of horticulture graduates. In greatest demand are students with competent personal and leadership abilities and technical skills. Increased class size and increased university core curriculum requirements hinder our capacity to develop these added skills within our curriculum. However, through extracurricular offerings we can offer students ways to develop skills that are not fully expressed in the academic arena. Student interaction in the traditional horticulture club requires practicing interpersonal relation and often conflict resolution skills. Students learn to work as a team to accomplish goals that they have set for themselves as a group. The Associate¥ Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) Student Career Days experience offers a highly effective means for reinforcing cognitive skills gained in the classroom and laboratory, as well as supplementing academic learning opportunities with technical activities beyond those offered in the curriculum.

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Terminal stem cuttings, 15.24 cm in length, of Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxt. (Chinese Fringetree) were taken on 24 Sept. 1992. All cuttings were made from hardened off current years spring growth. The basal end of the cuttings were cut at an angle and treated with one of eight treatments before being stuck in a 100% vermiculite medium and placed under intermittent mist with a polyethylene covering. Treatments were: 3,000, 8,000 and 16,000 ppm IBA as K-IBA liquid quick dips and as commercial talc preparations (Hormex Nos. 3, 8 and 16), 10,000 ppm NAA as a quick dip, and an untreated control. Cuttings were harvested and evaluated on 10 Dec. 1992. All auxin treatments increased rooting %, average root length, total root fresh weight, and root rating when compared to the untreated control. Cuttings treated with 10,000 ppm NAA had the greatest rooting %, longest average root length, greatest root number, and highest root rating compared to the other auxin treatments, with the exception of the 16,000 ppm K-IBA quick dip treatment which was similar.

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Two tree species, Acer rubrum `October Glory' (October Glory red maple) and Quercus phellos (willow oak) were planted in Columbus, GA and Mobile, AL. Variables evaluated were location (park vs residential) and tree size (1.5 vs 3.0 inch caliper). Greater shoot elongation occurred with 1.5 inch red maples and willow oaks than with 3.0 inch caliper trees. First year growth differences were not related to photosynthesis, night respiration, leaf water potential, or foliar nitrogen levels. Little height or caliper change occurred with either species. Red maple shoot elongation was greater in Mobile than into Columbus. Growth was not affected by location within either city.

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Pampas grass seedlings in 72-cell pack containers were transplanted into containers with a root observation window (17.8 × 10.2 cm) and treated with selected preemergence applied herbicides. Root numbers were counted in the upper and lower 8.9 cm of the viewing window until 16 days after treatment (DAT) when the windows became full of roots. Root growth in both the upper and lower window was suppressed with application of Factor 65 WG and Pendulum 60 WDG at the X and 2X rates at 16 DAT. Ronstar 2G and Pendulum 2G at the recommended rates and nontreated control plants had similar root numbers at 16 DAT. At 16 DAT, the greatest number of club roots formed on plants treated with the dinitroaniline herbicides; Pendulum 2G, Pendulum 60 WDG, and Factor 65 WG. Shoot growth was not affected by treatment.

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Uniform liners of Soft Touch Holly (Ilex crenata 'Soft Touch') and Fashion azalea {Rhododendron 'Fashion') were potted into trade gallon containers of a 3: 1 by volume pinebark: peat moss medium amended with 8.3 kg of 17-7-12 Osmocote and 0.9 kg of Micromax per m3. Dolomitic limestone rates were 0,3, and 6 kg per m3 of medium applied as a finely ground or pelletized product. Medium solution pH increased with increasing rate of dolomitic limestone. Ground dolomitic limestone had a greater impact on medium solution pH than pelletized dolomitic limestone and differences increased as rate increased. Addition of ground dolomitic limestone at 6 kg per m3 reduced foliar color and growth of azalea. Amending with dolomitic limestone had little or no effect on holly foliar color or growth, regardless of rate.

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Red maple cultivars 'October Glory' and `Northwood' were grown in 7 gallon containers to determine the influence of styrene lining and copper coating of containers on container medium temperature and growth of red maple cultivars. Copper coating effectively reduced circling of roots at the container wall-medium interface. Root control with copper was less effective on `October Glory' (a more vigorous cultivar) than on `Northwood'. Height, caliper, and root dry weight also were less for `Northwood'. In the absence of copper, surface-root coverage was greater in foam - lined containers than in containers without foam where temperatures averaged 10°C higher.

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Two experiments were conducted to evaluate commonly used granular preemergence herbicides applied prior to the sticking of cuttings in propagation. Rooting percentage of the three cultivars, `Trouper' azalea, `Hino-Crimson' azalea, and `August Beauty' gardenia, was not affected in experiment 1. However, all three species exhibited some reduction in root quality or root length with all herbicides. In general, the herbicides with the least suppression were: Ronstar, Southern WeedGrass Control, OH-2, Snapshot 2.5 TG, and Rout. The second experiment with `August Beauty' gardenia evaluated the effect of cuttings depth in overcoming the negative herbicide effects on root development. The results were similar to those obtained in experiment 1.

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A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/L was applied to 10 Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars. Compared to the control, increase in offsets produced by cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT. Offset stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves, was also cultivar- and BA-dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged fewer than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and plant size was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine; BA).

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