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  • Author or Editor: D.C. Ferree x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

A study to determine the influence of 4 rootstocks, 2 propagation methods, and transplanting on the growth and flowering of young ‘Skyline Supreme Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) revealed that trees on Mailing Merton (MM) 106 resulted in the greatest annual increment of growth followed by trees on MM 111, Mailing (M) 26 and M9. The rootstock influence on growth was evident in the second growing season. In their first season, budded trees made more rapid growth than grafted trees, but grafted trees made 39% more total growth in the second season. Two seasons later the trunk circumference, total shoot growth, tree height and spread, numbers of shoots and root suckers were greater on grafted trees than on budded trees. Transplanted trees had less trunk circumference, total shoot growth, tree height and spread, numbers of shoots and root suckers than stationary trees at the end of the fourth season. Trees on M 9 and M 26 produced more flower clusters than trees on MM 106 and MM 111. Grafted trees had more flower clusters than budded trees and stationary trees had more clusters than transplanted trees.

Open Access
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Abstract

Three hand pruning systems (annual, biennial, and triennial) and 2 combinations of mechanical hedging and hand pruning were compared on 6 cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) on Mailing (M) 26 planted in 1968 at a spacing of 3.6 × 6 m. In general cultivars responded similarly to the pruning treatments. After 6 years the pruning treatments had no apparent influence on trunk circumference and tree height, but hedging decreased tree spread. There were similar light levels with all pruning treatments. Inserting limb spreaders and pruning annually had the highest labor requirements and was among the better treatments in inducing larger fruit size, accumulated yield/tree, yield/trunk cross sectional area and revenue/tree. Hedging plus biennial pruning had a smaller labor requirement and was equivalent to annual pruning in fruit size, accumulated yield/tree, yield/trunk cross sectional area and revenue/tree. Hedging followed by annual pruning resulted in the lowest number of fruit/tree, accumulated yield/tree and yield/trunk cross section and was considered the least desirable treatment.

Open Access
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Abstract

Sprays of 0.5% poly-1-p-menthen-8-9-diyl (Vapor Gard), an antitranspirant, decreased fruit size but had no influence on russet or fruit quality of field-grown ‘Golden Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Laboratory experiments in growth chambers with potted ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees indicated that: 1) Vapor Gard at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% tended to decrease net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) for 1 to 7 days under optimum soil moisture conditions; 2) under conditions of low soil moisture, 2.0% Vapor Gard sprays reduced Pn and Tr significantly, but did not reduce symptoms of injury from moisture stress; and 3) Vapor Gard did not affect shoot growth over a 21-day period.

Open Access
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Abstract

Young, actively growing, container-grown Malling Merton (MM) 106 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.), trained to a single shoot in a greenhouse, were oriented at vertical, 45° from vertical (45°), 90° from vertical (90°), or 90° from vertical and rotated at 1 rpm (90° rotated), and summer-pruned to remove none or 50% of 70.0-cm shoots. Orientation in a nonvertical position and summer pruning delayed a decline in net photosynthesis (Pn) exhibited by vertical unpruned trees. Pruning but not orientation increased total shoot growth, shoot number, and the number and total area of leaves of subsequent growth, but decreased average leaf size. Within 1 week after orientation, unpruned trees at 45° or 90° showed a decline of terminal shoot growth. However, 60 days after pruning a delayed growth of axillary shoots along the tree axis resulted in no difference in total shoot growth, leaf area, or leaf number on subsequent growth compared to vertical unpruned trees. Orientation at 45° and 90° increased the dry-weight root:shoot ratio and induced rootsuckers. Pruning decreased the root dry weight in all tree orientations. Rotation of unpruned trees increased apical growth, axillary shoot numbers, and dry weight of subsequent growth, and decreased root growth compared to unrotated trees.

Open Access
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Abstract

Vigorous, 5-year-old trees of apple [Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Prince Delicious/Malling (M) 9] were unpruned or pruned on July 3, August 3, or September 3 in 1979 and 1980. July and August pruning maintained number of fruit/tree and July pruning increased the number of fruit borne in the canopy interior compared to the unpruned control. September pruning decreased fruit numbers compared to July and unpruned trees. July and August but not September pruning reduced cork spot. Pruning reduced fruit size, soluble solids, and watercore but did not affect fruit color or flesh firmness. Limb orientation had no effect on fruit number, soluble solids, or watercore, but fruit on vertical limbs were better-colored and smaller than those on horizontal limbs. Spur-borne fruit in the canopy interior were larger, but less colored, compared to fruit on horizontal and vertical limbs located near the canopy periphery.

Open Access
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Abstract

Trees of apple [Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Prince Delicious/Malling (M) 9] planted in 1974 on a 1.52 x 3.05 m spacing exceeded the allotted space by 40% at the initiation of the study in 1979. Trees were unpruned (control) and pruned on July 3, August 3, or September 3 in 1979 and 1980. Pruning decreased limb and trunk cross-sectional area. Horizontal limb cross-sectional area increase was less than that of vertical limbs. Pruning increased spur leaf numbers, area, and size on the 1978 limb section but only July and August pruning prevented the decline in spur numbers occurring on control limbs. July pruning increased bloom per cluster but decreased total bloom on the 1978 limb sections. August and September pruning were most efficient in maintaining tree height while all pruning treatments maintained tree spread.

Open Access
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Abstract

Various treatments resulting in physical stress to leaves of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) were tested for their influence on net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr). Brushing to simulate handling or wind rubbing reduced both Pn and Tr in one study and had little effect in another. Shaking 1 min/day had no influence on Pn or Tr. Six or more 1-cm cuts/leaf reduced Pn and had no effect on Tr. Removal of 20% of the leaf area and twenty-four 1-cm cuts/leaf reduced Pn in young expanding leaves; the amount of cut surface exposed by injury was more important than the amount of leaf area removed. Scoring and feeding of two-spotted spider mites [Tetranychus urticae (Koch)] reduced Pn.

Open Access
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Abstract

Young, container-grown ‘Topred Delicious’/Malling (M) 9 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) trained to a single shoot out-of-doors were summer pruned to remove 0, 25, 50 or 75% of 78 cm shoots. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) were as much as 36% greater on older, basal leaves of trees with 50 and 75% shoot removal than on unpruned trees. These differences were present for 39 days after pruning. Basal leaves did not abscise in the 11-week period after pruning on trees with 75% shoot removal and remained longer on trees with 50% shoot removal than on unpruned trees. Leaf area removed by pruning was partially compensated by leaves on subsequent regrowth. All summer pruning treatments suppressed the area of individual leaves on regrowth by about 50% of the size of similar aged leaves on unpruned trees. Summer pruning suppressed the dry weight of basal stem sections and roots roughly in proportion to shoot removal amounts, while dry weight of shoot regrowth was less influenced. Eleven weeks after pruning, dry weight of roots on summer pruned trees with 25, 50 and 75% shoot removal was 20, 39 and 50% less, respectively, than root dry weight of unpruned trees.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Trees of apple [Malus domestica Borkh. cvs. Jonathan/Malling (M) 26] were summer-pruned each August from 1978-1980 by heading all shoots longer than 10 cm, and their response was compared to trees receiving only a light dormant-pruning by thinning-out cuts. Cropping treatments were a full crop or defruiting in June. Final length of shoot regrowth on summer-pruned trees was 82% and 76% less than terminal growth of control trees in 1979 and 1980, respectively, but terminal shoots produced the year following pruning were 55% and 62% longer on summer-pruned tress than on controls in 1979 and 1980, respectively. Summer-pruned trees with a full crop had 13% shorter terminal shoot length than defruited trees in 1979, but cropping had no effect in 1980. Trees with a full crop had a smaller annual increase in trunk cross-section than defruited trees, but were not affected by summer pruning. Summer pruning restricted tree canopy dimensions, resulting in 43% less canopy volume than control trees in 1979 and 1980, increased canopy openness to light penetration, and hastened flower opening. Pruning treatments did not affect fruit set. Fruit yield per tree was reduced by summer pruning, but yield per canopy volume was not affected. Fruit size was decreased by summer pruning in 1979 but was increased in 1980. Fruit soluble solids were reduced by summer pruning in 1979 and 1980, fruit color was increased in 1978 and 1980, but not in 1979. Flesh firmness was unaffected by summer pruning.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) and (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) and multiple applications of selected pesticides were tested for their influence on net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) of leaves of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Application by aerosol, spray, soil surface incorporation, and fumigation using commercially available pesticide materials adaptable to each had no influence on Pn. Rates of aldicarb in excess of 5 g/20 cm diameter pot (2.9 liter) caused a reduction in Pn. Rates above 14 g/20 cm pot reduced Tr and induced leaf chlorosis and defoliation. One to 3 applications of diazinon, methomyl, and oxamyl had no affect on Pn or Tr but 5 applications reduced Pn and had no effect on Tr. Plictran decreased Pn of both ‘Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ leaves after 5 applications. A single application of daminozide or ethephon had no measurable influence on Pn or Tr. The growth regulators did not alter the influence of pesticides on Pn. Plictran and oxamyl increased the severity of leaf spotting on ‘Golden Delicious’.

Open Access