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  • Author or Editor: Craig K. Chandler x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Experiments were conducted to examine strawberry (Fragaria × anannassa Duchesne) plant renovation practices, singly and in combination, for effects on vegetative growth of greenhouse-grown, potted strawberry plants. The major results of these experiments were as follows: a) most of the plants that were both defoliated and root-pruned after fruit harvest died; b) there was a negative linear relationship between the number of leaves removed and the number of new leaves and runners produced; c) root, leaf, and total plant dry weights were negatively correlated with the severity of root pruning; and d) soil addition after fruit harvest decreased the shoot : root ratio of multiple-crown plants, but had no effect on single-crown plants.

Open Access

Abstract

Five blueberry interspecific hybrids (3 tetraploids, 1 pentaploid, and 1 hexaploid) and 2 highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L., 2n = 4x = 48) blueberry clones were crossed in all combinations. Seeds per pollination and seed germination were the criteria used to measure the success of these crosses. The tetraploid interspecific hybrids were fully cross-fertile with the highbush clones and with each other. The pentaploid and hexaploid interspecific hybrids were only partially cross-fertile with the highbush clones and with the tetraploid interspecific hybrids; nonetheless, they still produced an adequate amount of viable seed in most combinations. Significant reciprocal differences in crossability were detected for 4 of the 5 species hybrids.

Open Access

`Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in 1991-92 and `Oso Grande' and `Seascape' in 1992-93 were grown in a K fertilization study using polyethylene-mulched and fumigated beds. Potassium was injected weekly into the drip irrigation system at 0.28,0.56,0.84, 1.12, and 1.40 kg K/ha per day. Early, March, and total-season marketable fruit yields were not affected by K rate during either season. The average fruit weight of `Oso Grande' for the early, March, and total-season harvest periods in the 1992-93 season decreased with increased K rate. For the same harvest periods, `Seascape' average fruit weight increased, decreased, and did not change, respectively, with increased K rate. Cull fruit yield during both seasons and fruit firmness during the 1992-93 season were not affected by K rate. Petiole sap, whole leaf, and leaf blade K concentrations increased with increasing K rates on most sampling dates during both seasons. `Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' produced similar total marketable fruit yields the first season, but `Oso Grande' produced higher total yields than `Seascape' during all harvest periods of the second season.

Free access

A tissue culture protocol was developed that increased the germination percentage and decreased the lag time to germination for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) achenes. This technique involved cutting surface-sterilized achenes across the embryo axis then placing the shoot apex/radicle-containing sections on semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium lacking hormones. Cut achenes began germinating 5 days after culture and achieved maximum germination (97% to 100%) in less than 2 weeks, compared to whole achenes, which began to germinate 7 to 10 days after sowing and required more than 7 weeks for maximum germination (<50%). Enhanced germination of cut achenes was a general phenomenon since achenes from 231 hybrid crosses responded similarly. Following placement on culture medium, cut achenes could be stored up to 8 weeks at 4C then removed to 27C, where germination and seedling development occurred at percentages and rates comparable to freshly cut achenes. Achenes did not require stratification before cutting to exhibit increased germination. Nearly 100% of the achenes from freshly harvested red-ripe, pink and white strawberries germinated after cutting and culture, although cut achenes from white and pink berries germinated more slowly than those from red-ripe berries. Achenes from green berries, whether whole or cut, did not germinate. This method of “embryo rescue” could be used to generate more seedlings from poorly germinating hybrid crosses, would considerably decrease the time from sowing to seedling production compared to traditional means, and would produce seedlings of uniform age for subsequent field evaluation.

Free access

The effects of cultivar, harvest date, and production year on the soluble solids and antioxidant phytochemical levels of 22 strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) genotypes grown in a winter annual hill (raised bed) production system were investigated. Fruit harvested in Jan. 2003 and 2004 were characterized by low polyphenolic content, but high concentrations of soluble solids and ascorbic acid; whereas fruit harvested in Feb. 2003 and 2004 generally had elevated polyphenolic concentrations, but lower levels of soluble solids and ascorbic acid. Annual variation in soluble solids and phytochemical composition was also observed among nine strawberry genotypes, which was likely attributable to variations in solar radiation and air temperature. `Earlibrite' was among the highest for soluble solids concentration on three of the four harvest dates, while `Carmine' was noted for its high phytochemical concentrations across harvest dates and years. The breeder selection `FL 99-117' emerged as a promising selection in terms of producing fruit with high concentrations of soluble solids and antioxidant phytochemicals.

Free access

Genotype × environment interaction for resistance to the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) of eleven clones of Fragaria L. sp. (strawberries) grown in six environments throughout the United States was examined using two multivariate analysis techniques, principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI). Both techniques provided useful and interesting ways of investigating genotype × environment interaction. PCA analysis indicated that clones X-11 and E-15 were stable across both low and high environments for the number of spider mites per leaflet. The initial AMMI analysis showed that the main effects of genotype, environment, and their first-order interaction were highly significant, with genotype × environment interaction due mainly to cultivar `Totem' and environment FL94. A second AMMI analysis, which excluded `Totem' and FL94, showed that the main effects of the remaining genotypes, environments, and genotype × environment interaction were also highly significant. AMMI biplot analysis revealed that FL93 and GH93 were unstable environments, but with opposite interaction patterns; and GCL-8 and WSU2198 were unstable genotypes with similar interactions that were opposite those of WSU 2202.

Free access