Heterotrophic bacteria present in recycled greenhouse irrigation water (RIW) were characterized and then evaluated for their effect on Pythium aphanidermatum, P. cryptoirregulare, and P. irregulare. Nutrient agar (NA) and R2A agar were used to isolate copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria. Bacterial isolates recovered from RIW were categorized according to whether they inhibited Pythium growth, attached to hyphae, or enhanced Pythium growth in the three Pythium species used. Three bacterial isolates were selected to determine whether their in vitro interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum, the most pathogenic of the three species used, influenced disease development in the greenhouse. An isolate of Sphingobium sp. that inhibited Pythium, Pseudomonas sp. that attached to hyphae, and Cupriavidus sp. that enhanced the growth of P. aphanidermatum in vitro were used in greenhouse experiments to examine their effects on disease development in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum ‘White Orbit’) grown in pasteurized potting mix in ebb and flood irrigation systems. Disease progress curves evaluating the effect of each bacterium indicate that they did not suppress or enhance disease development (P = 0.05). Thus, the effects that the bacterial isolates had in vitro differed from their effects under greenhouse conditions.
Nine runoff containment basins (RCBs), used directly or indirectly for irrigating plants in ornamental plant nurseries, and one adjacent stream were sampled for water quality between Feb. and July 2013 in Maryland (MD), Mississippi (MS), and Virginia (VA). Triplicate water samples were taken monthly. Analysis was done for 18 water quality variables including nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N), orthophosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) and total-phosphorus (T-P), potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, aluminum, boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese, zinc (Zn), pH, total alkalinity (T-Alk), electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium. Additionally, 15 RCBs from 10 nurseries in Alabama (AL), Louisiana (LA), and MS were sampled in 2014 and 2016. Most prevalent correlations (P = 0.01) were between macronutrients, EC, B, Fe, and Zn, but none were prevalent across a majority of RCBs. Water quality parameter values were mostly present at low to preferred levels in all 25 waterways. Macronutrient levels were highest for a RCB that receives fertility from fertigation derived runoff. Water pH ranged from acidic to alkaline (>8). Results of this study show water quality in RCBs can be suitable for promoting plant health in ornamental plant nurseries, but also shows levels will vary between individual RCBs, therefore demonstrates need to verify water quality from individual water sources.
Triplicate water samples were collected monthly from nine waterways [eight runoff containment basins (RCBs) and one stream] on four commercial ornamental plant nurseries from February to July, and from one RCB and nursery from April to October. Four RCBs, one per nursery, were actively used as an irrigation water source. Analysis was done for 18 water quality variables, including ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+–N), nitrate–nitrogen (NO3−–N), ortho phosphate–phosphorus (PO4–P), total-phosphorus (T-P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), aluminum (Al), boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), pH, total alkalinity (T-Alk), electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium (Na). The degree and rate of monthly change varied considerably between RCBs. Macronutrients generally increased at most nurseries in 1–2 months after fertilizer application particularly in three RCBs (MD21, VA11, and VA12), with levels of N- and P forms exceeding preferred criteria for irrigation water by June and July in VA11 and VA12. Micronutrients fluctuated less but did vary per RCB with the most monthly change occurring in MD21. Even though pH fluctuated, pH tended to remain alkaline or neutral to acidic respective of the RCB during the entire sample period. T-Alk tended to increase over the summer. EC primarily fluctuated in RCBs with high macronutrient levels. Although levels of N- and P forms were mostly suitable by irrigation water criteria, they were frequently above U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) nutrient criteria for promoting healthy water environments of lakes and reservoirs, and are discussed.
Increasing environmental concerns and legislation in many states and in other countries require that we take a more comprehensive sustainable “best management” approach to production techniques in nursery and greenhouse operations. This is particularly important because these production facilities are typically intense users of resources that are applied to relatively small land areas. We have developed an online knowledge center to facilitate the implementation of more sustainable practices within the nursery and greenhouse industry. A web-based knowledge center provides the most cost-effective mechanism for information delivery, as our potential audiences are extremely diverse and widespread. We currently have a registered user database of over 450 educators, growers, and industry professionals, and undergraduate and graduate students. A gateway website provides an overview of the issues and the goals of the project. The associated knowledge center currently has 25 in-depth learning modules, designed in a Moodle learning management framework. These learning modules are designed to actively engage learners in topics on substrate, irrigation, surface water, and nutrient and crop health management, which are integral to formulating farm-specific strategies for more sustainable water and nutrient management practices. Additional modules provide assessment and implementation tools for irrigation audits, irrigation methods and technologies, and water and nutrient management planning. The instructional design of the learning modules was paramount because there can be multiple strategies to improve site-specific production practices, which often require an integration of knowledge from engineering, plant science, and plant pathology disciplines. The assessment and review of current practices, and the decision to change a practice, are often not linear, nor simple. All modules were designed with this process in mind, and include numerous resources [pictures, diagrams, case studies, and assessment tools (e.g., spreadsheets and example calculations)] to enable the learner to fully understand all of the options available and to think critically about his/her decisions. Sixteen of the modules were used to teach an intensive 400-level “Principles of Water and Nutrient Management” course at the University of Maryland during Spring 2008 and 2009. The water and nutrient management planning module also supports the nursery and greenhouse Farmer Training Certification program in Maryland. The Maryland Department of Agriculture provides continuing education credits for all consultants and growers who register and complete any module in the knowledge center. Although these learning resources were developed by faculty in the eastern region of the United States, much of the information is applicable to more widespread audiences.