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  • Author or Editor: Cheryl R. Boyer x
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Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. is susceptible to anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. Fungicides have provided little control of anthracnose on E. fortunei in past studies. Identification of cultural practices that reduce disease incidence would be beneficial to the nursery industry. Containerized E. fortunei `Emerald'N Gold' plants were placed either on gravel beds or black plastic-covered gravel beds. Half of the beds in each bed treatment were sprayed with a 10% bleach solution monthly to attempt to reduce the presence of C. gloeosporioides inoculum. Plants were rated monthly from May (initial rating) through October for disease severity. A covariate analysis was performed using initial ratings as the covariate for ratings from all other months. Bleach did not affect disease ratings at any time. Disease ratings of plants on plastic-covered beds were lower than those of plants on gravel beds. Disease ratings decreased linearly as the growing season progressed.

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Plants of Euonymus fortunei `Emerald Gaiety', `Emerald 'n Gold' and `Canadale Gold' were sprayed to runoff weekly at two sites with one of three fungicide treatments or water (control) to determine fungicide effectiveness in controlling anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Copper sulfate pentahydrate was applied at 0.4 or 0.6 g·L-1 a.i. or mancozeb was applied at 1.8 g·L-1 a.i.. Plants were rated for disease incidence approximately monthly. No interaction occurred between fungicide and cultivar. Differences among fungicide treatments were not apparent until weeks 18 or 20 depending on the site, when plants treated with mancozeb had lower disease ratings than plants receiving any other treatment. Cultivars differed at almost every rating date at both sites. Poison agar experiments were conducted to determine mycelial inhibition by copper sulfate pentahydrate or mancozeb.

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Heat stress is problematic to root growth in the production of containerized nursery plants. Container color may moderate effects of solar radiation on substrate temperatures. Studies were conducted near Manhattan, KS, to evaluate effects of container color on growth of roots and shoots in bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Four treatments among studies included containers colored flat and gloss white, silver, and black; a green container color treatment was added to the tree studies. Plants were grown in bark-based soil-less substrate and temperatures were measured at 5-cm depths in the south sides and centers. After 4 months, plant variables were measured. Roots were separated into three sections: core, north, and south. In the bean study, substrate temperatures at the south side of the container averaged lowest in flat and gloss white (≈36 °C) and greatest in black containers (50.3 °C). Root density at the south side was reduced in beans by 63% to 71% in black compared with flat and gloss white. In heat-sensitive maples, substrate temperatures at the south side of containers averaged up to 7.7 °C greater in black and green than in other treatments. Substrate temperatures in the center averaged 3.5 to 3.8 °C greater in black than in flat and gloss white, resulting in up to 2.5 times greater root density in flat and gloss white than in black containers. In heat-tolerant redbuds, the effects of container color on whole-plant growth were less evident. Data suggest that heat-sensitive plants benefit from being grown in white containers or painting outer surfaces of green and black containers white.

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A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia ×hybrida Vilm. ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold (Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero Spry’). Loblolly pine from a 12-year-old plantation were harvested at ground level, chipped, and further processed through a hammer mill to pass a 0.64-cm screen. The resulting WholeTree (WT) substrate was used alone or combined with 20% (WTP2) or 50% (WTP5) (by volume) Canadian sphagnum peatmoss and compared with an industry standard peat-lite (PL) mix of 8 peatmoss : 1 vermiculite : 1 perlite (by volume). Substrates were amended with 1.78 kg·m−3 dolomitic lime, 0.59 kg·m−3 gypsum [CaSO4-2(H2O)], 0.44 kg·m−3 Micromax, 1.78 kg·m−3 16N–2.6P–9.9K (3- to 4-month release), and 1.78 kg·m−3 16N–2.6P–10.8K (5- to 6-month release). A 7N–1.3P–8.3K starter fertilizer (SF) was added to each substrate at 0.0, 1.19, 2.37, or 3.56 kg·m−3. Container capacity (CC) was greatest for PL and decreased as the percentage of peatmoss in the substrate decreased with WT having 35% less CC than PL. Conversely, air space (AS) was greatest for the WT and decreased as percentage of peatmoss increased with PL containing 33% less AS than WT. In general, petunia dry weight was greatest for any substrate containing peatmoss with a SF rate of 2.37 kg·m−3 or greater. The exception was that petunia grown in WT at 3.56 kg·m−3 SF had similar dry weight as all other treatments. Marigold dry weight was similar for all substrates where at least 2.37 kg·m−3 SF was used.

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A study was conducted at Auburn University to evaluate freshly chipped pine trees as an alternative substrate in container nursery crops. Two substrates were tested alone and in combination with aged pine bark (PB), peat (P), and composted poultry litter (PL). A 6:1 (v:v) PB: sand control treatment was also included. The two substrates were both composed of small caliper (2 to 10 cm) Pinus taeda processed in a chipper (including needles) (AUC); however, one substrate was additionally processed through a hammermill with a 0.95-cm screen (AUHM). Treatments included were 100% AUC, 3:1 (v/v) AUC:PB, 3:1 (v/v) AUC:P, 3:1 (v/v) AUC:PL, 1:1 (v/v) AUC:PB, 1:1 (v/v) AUC: P, 1:1 (v/v) AUC:PL, and the same treatments for the AUHM substrate. There were a total of 15 treatments with six replications per treatment. Each substrate was amended with 0.45 kg·m-3 gypsum, 6.35 kg·m-3 Polyon 17–6–12 (17N–2.6P–10K) and 0.68 kg·m-3 MicroMax. Trade gallon (2.8-L) containers were filled with respective substrates and planted with Lantana camera `New Gold' on 20 July 2005. AUC and AUHM treatments amended with either PL or P resulted in Lantana with growth indices similar to PB:sand (6:1). In general, plants tended to be larger when amended on a 1:1 basis with either PL or P, but were similar statistically to those amended 3:1. For example, plants grown with AUHM:P 1:1 or AUHM:PL 1:1 were 7.3% and 8.8% larger, respectively, than plants grown in the same medium at 3:1. The lowest growth indices tended to occur with AUC and AUHM alone or amended with pine bark. Lantana root growth followed a similar trend to growth indices in that greatest coverage of the rootball surface occurred with AUC or AUHM treatments amended with PL or P.

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