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  • Author or Editor: Chen Wang x
  • HortTechnology x
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Grafting is widely used in the commercial production of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae) and solanaceous (Solanaceae) vegetables, but seldom in the production of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata group). In our study, we developed a tube grafting method for cabbage using the ‘K-Y cross’ cabbage as the scion and ‘Tsuei Jin’ chinese kale (B. oleracea Alboglabra group) as the rootstock (K-Y/TJ), and then used the K-Y/TJ grafted seedlings to identify the best healing conditions. The examined healing conditions included temperature (15, 20, or 25 °C), relative humidity (RH; 75%, 85%, or 95%), and light intensity (high light intensity, 79 to 107 μmol·m–2·s–1; low light intensity, 38.6 to 58.8 μmol·m–2·s–1; or full darkness, 0 μmol·m–2·s–1). Considering all the healing conditions, the K-Y/TJ grafted seedlings healing at 20 °C, 95% RH, and high light intensity exhibited survival rates of up to 96.7% and overall superior seedling quality. ‘K-Y cross’ cabbages were then grafted onto chinese kale rootstocks, and the head traits of all grafted plants were comparable to those of nongrafted and/or self-grafted ‘K-Y cross’ plants. ‘K-Y cross’ plants grafted on ‘Jie Lan’ chinese kale rootstocks had greater ascorbic acid and total soluble solid (TSS) contents than nongrafted and self-grafted ‘K-Y cross’ plants. Overall, this research describes a successful tube grafting method and the optimal healing conditions for grafted cabbage seedlings, which can be used as a tool to improve head quality.

Open Access

Screening salinity-tolerant plants is usually time intensive and only applicable to a limited number of salinity levels. A near-continuous gradient dosing (NCGD) system allows researchers to evaluate a large number of plants for salinity tolerance with multiple treatments, more flexibility, and reduced efforts of irrigation. Rose of sharon (Hibiscus syriacus), ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), and japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) were irrigated using an NCGD system with eight electrical conductivity (EC) levels ranging from 0.9 to 6.5 dS·m–1. At 11 weeks after irrigation was initiated, there were no significant differences among EC levels in terms of visual score, growth index [(Height + Width 1 + Width 2)/3], stem diameter, number of inflorescences, and shoot dry weight (DW) of rose of sharon. However, the root DW, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of rose of sharon decreased linearly as EC levels increased. Ninebark and japanese spirea had increased foliar salt damage with increasing EC levels. The growth index, stem diameter, number of inflorescences, shoot and root DW, SPAD, and Pn of ninebark decreased linearly as EC levels increased. The growth index and SPAD of japanese spirea decreased quadratically with increasing EC levels, but its stem diameter, number of inflorescences, shoot and root DW, and Pn decreased linearly with increasing EC levels. The salinity threshold (50% loss of shoot DW) was 5.4 and 4.6 dS·m–1, respectively, for ninebark and japanese spirea. We were not able to define the salinity threshold for rose of sharon in this study. However, rose of sharon was the most salinity-tolerant species among the three landscape plants.

Open Access

This research was initiated to determine the response of apple (Malus ×domestica) fruit quality to sprays of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and sugar alcohol zinc. Two apple cultivars Fuji and Gala were evaluated, the leaf zinc (Zn) concentration of which were about 14.3 mg·kg−1 dry weight without Zn deficiency symptoms. The trees were sprayed with ZnSO4 and sugar alcohol zinc separately during four different developmental stages: 2 weeks before budbreak (P1), 3 weeks after bloom (P2), the termination of spring shoot growth (P3), and 4 weeks before harvest (P4). The fruit was harvested at maturity and analyzed for fruit quality and fruit Zn concentration. Zinc sprays during the four different developmental stages increased Zn concentration of peeled and washed fruit at harvest, without phytotoxicity. The treatments at stages P2 and P4 increased average fruit weight of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’, respectively. The treatments at stages P1 and P4 increased the fruit firmness of ‘Gala’, while the treatments at stages P1 and P2 increased the fruit firmness of ‘Fuji’. The treatments at stages P1, P2, and P4 increased the soluble sugar and vitamin C of ‘Gala’ fruit, while the treatments at all the stages increased the soluble sugar and vitamin C of ‘Fuji’. And the effects of sugar alcohol zinc were equal and more pronounced than those of ZnSO4. Thus, Zn sprays at critical periods can improve fruit quality of apple trees, which show no Zn deficiency symptoms with leaf Zn concentration less than 15 mg·kg−1 dry weight.

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