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  • Author or Editor: C.C. Reilly x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Commercial and exotic cultivars and selections of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were evaluated for reaction to gummosis caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces & de Not. (B. ribis Gross & Dugg.). Commercial germplasm was susceptible. Mature trees of several exotic lines showed very little natural infection. ‘Eagle Beak’, Plant Introduction (PI) 43289 from China, was the most resistant to gummosis. Artificially inoculated twigs of this line gummed only slightly, although the fungus could still be isolated from some wounds after 16 months.

Open Access

Leaf surface compounds of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] were analyzed with regard to developmental stage and to susceptibility to infection by Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang. Gottwald). Immature and mature leaves of two resistant (`Elliott' and `Sumner') and two susceptible (`Wichita' and `Schley') cultivars were extracted with methylene chloride. Extracts were separated by silicic acid chromatography into polar and nonpolar fractions. Constituents of each fraction were subsequently separated by gas chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Leaf surface constituents characterized included long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic wax esters, triterpenoid constituents, aliphatic alcohols, fatty acids, and diacyl glycerides. The predominant surface compounds on immature leaves were lipids such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and glycerides. On mature leaves, lipids declined and aliphatic hydrocarbons and triterpenoids became predominant leaf surface constituents. The changes were observed for all cultivars, regardless of genotypic response to C. caryigenum. Thus, we conclude that cuticular chemicals change dramatically during leaf maturation but do not correlate with resistance to scab disease common to certain pecan cultivars.

Free access

Abstract

Seedlings or rooted cuttings of 35 lines of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus spp. were screened for resistance or tolerance to the ring nematode Criconemella xenoplax (Raski) Luc & Raski (Cx). Host reaction to Cx was evaluated by comparing root and shoot growth of infested plants with that of uninfested checks. Reaction of Cx to the host was reflected in nematode density per gram root dry weight (NPGR). Effects of Cx on root growth were not always correlated with increases in Cx per 100 cm3 of soil or in NPGR. Prunus japonica Thunb. and P. tomentosa Thunb. showed no Cx-related growth reduction and had lower Cx densities than most other lines. ‘Lovell’ peach had a smaller root system and fewer Cx per pot than ‘Nemaguard’ peach, but differences in NPGR were not significant. With high inoculum levels, significant differences in NPGR between lines, and in growth parameters within lines, could be detected after 6 months.

Open Access

Polyphenols were analyzed in expanding buds and developing leaves of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars with varying responses to Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang. Gottwald), the organism causing scab. Plant tissue extracts were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a water: methanol gradient to separate polyphenolic components on a C-18 reversed phase column. A diode-array detector was used to identify profile components by retention times and computer matching of ultraviolet spectra to standard compounds in a library. Concentrations of these polyphenols were compared throughout the growing season in leaves of pecan cultivars with low (`Elliott'), intermediate (`Stuart'), and high (`Wichita') susceptibility to scab; during susceptibility to infection by Cladosporium caryigenum from 16 cultivars; and in `Wichita' leaf discs with and without scab lesions. The major polyphenolic constituent of tissues for all cultivars was identified as hydrojuglone glucoside, which was detected in intact buds and leaves throughout the growing season. Hydrojuglone glucoside concentration increased concomitantly with leaf expansion and then declined slowly. Juglone was barely, if at all, detectable, regardless of leaf age. No correlation was found between cultivar susceptibility to pecan scab and the levels of either juglone or hydrojuglone glucoside in the healthy leaves of 16 cultivars. Leaf tissue with scab lesions had significantly higher juglone and hydrojuglone glucoside levels than leaf discs without scab lesions. Chemical names used: 4-8-dihydroxy-1-naphthyl b-d-glucopyranoside (hydrojuglone glucoside); 1,5-hydroxy-naphthoquinone (juglone).

Free access

Germ tube, appressorium, and subcuticular hypha development were analyzed on host and nonhost leaves for Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang. Gottwald), the fungus causing scab on pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch]. Plant features characterized for supporting fungal growth were genotype, adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and leaf maturity. Germ tubes and appressoria developed on all plant leaves, despite genotype, leaf surface, or maturity. Germ tube frequency on the susceptible host, `Wichita', was lower than on the resistant host, `Elliott', but was not significantly different from the nonhost, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Appressoria formed with equal frequency on leaves of both pecan cultivars and tobacco. Adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were not different within any given genotype for supporting fungal development. Immature leaves of `Elliott', but not of `Wichita', had a higher frequency of germ tubes and appressoria than mature leaves. Subcuticular hyphal development occurred only on immature leaves of susceptible `Wichita' pecan. Hence, subcuticular hyphal development is a prime candidate for being the fungal stage specific for host susceptibility. Resistance to C. caryigenum infection appears to be expressed at the plant site beneath the cuticle as fungal hyphae did not develop in a resistant pecan genotype or on nonhost leaves. Thus, resistance to the fungus causing pecan scab likely is expressed after both germ tube and appressorium development and operates beneath, not on the surface, of the leaf cuticle. Furthermore, technology developed to make these assessments would be adaptable in pecan breeding programs to screen for scab resistance.

Free access

Abstract

The high variability in physiologically different stages of leaves and susceptibility of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars to the pecan scab [Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang) Gottwald] fungus prompted an evaluation of phylloplane-associated substances (PASs) that influence fungal conidia germination. Germination of conidia was evaluated in several TLC fractions derived from water or dichloromethane leachates of the phylloplane of pecan leaves. Reciprocal tests of pecan scab conidia isolated from ‘Schley’ and ‘Stuart’ against phylloplane leachates from both ‘Schley’ and ‘Stuart’ were conducted. Several PASs proved to have either inhibitory, neutral, or promotive effects on conidia germination. 5-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone (juglone) was identified as one such substance and was observed to be a strong inhibitor of conidia germination, but had no effect on colony growth or sporulation. The susceptibility of pecan foliage to pecan scab appears to be partially dependent on phylloplane composition.

Open Access

The influence of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] leaflet bronzing, a discoloration of the lower surface, on foliar physiology and nut-meat yield is unknown. Field investigations indicate that bronzing can adversely affect foliage by reducing net photoassimilation (A), stomatal conductance (sgw ), and transpiration (E) while also altering stomatal aperture and cellular structure, and increasing temperature. Kernel weight and fill percentage are also reduced. Research indicated that foliar A declined in proportion to degree of bronze coloration, with negative A exhibited by heavily bronzed foliage. A by bronzed foliage did not increase as light levels exceeded ≈250 μmol·m-2·s-1. Within the same compound leaf, nonbronzed leaflets adjacent to bronzed leaflets exhibited greater than normal A. Bronzed leaflets also exhibited lower sgw to water vapor, less transpirational H2O loss, and higher afternoon leaf temperature. Light micrographs of bronzed foliage indicated abnormal epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells. Weight and percentage of kernel comprising the nut declined on shoots supporting foliage bronzing in July to August, but was unaffected when bronzing occurred in September to October. Bronzing of pecan foliage can therefore be of both physiological and economic significance.

Free access