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Highbush blueberry plants require low-pH, well-drained sandy soils. To increase the range of sites available for highbush blueberry production, by-products were tested as constituents in soilless media and as soil amendments. By-products, including coal ash, municipal biosolid compost, leaf compost, and acid peat, were combined in different proportions and compared to Berryland sand (alone) and Manor clay loam (alone and compost-amended) for a total of 10 media treatments. The pH of all treatment media was adjusted to 4.5 with sulfur. One-year-old tissue-cultured plants of `Bluecrop' and `Sierra' were planted in 15-L pots containing the pH-adjusted treatment media in 1997, producing their first substantial crop in 1999. For the 1999 crop, ripe fruit was harvested at weekly intervals over 5 weeks. ANOVA for yield indicated a significant cultivar × media interaction. `Bluecrop' appeared more sensitive to media treatment as yields on Manor clay loam were 80% less than on Berryland sand. Yields of `Bluecrop' on coal ash-compost mixes were similar to that of Berryland sand, and 1:1 coal ash:compost mixes produced significantly higher yields than did the 3:1 mixes. Yield of `Sierra' on Manor clay loam was 41% less than on Berryland sand, and plants growing on soilless mixes yielded 17% to 58% more than those on Berryland sand. `Bluecrop' fruit size was greatest for Berryland sand, but did not differ significantly among coal ash-compost mixes. For all media treatments, `Sierra' fruit size was inversely correlated with yield. Fruit from `Bluecrop' plants on coal ash-compost mixes ripened slightly earlier than on Berryland sand, but ripening date of `Sierra' did not vary significantly with soil treatment. The potential for employing these by-product mixes in small-scale commercial blueberry production will be discussed.

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Precocious varieties of highbush blueberry may over-crop during the first few seasons in the fruiting field, adversely affecting plant establishment. Reducing or preventing bloom in the nursery and during establishment would be beneficial in preventing early cropping and reducing the risk of infection by pollen-borne viruses. We investigated the efficacy of foliar applications of ProVide® (Valent BioSciences), a commercial GA4+7 formulation, for suppressing flower bud initiation in blueberry. One-year-old rooted cuttings of `Bluecrop' were obtained from a commercial nursery and established in 11-L pots at the Blueberry and Cranberry Research Center, Chatsworth, N.J. Dilute foliar applications of ProVide® were made at concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg·L-1 a.i., ranging from 7 July to 1 Sept. 2004, with 10 replicate plants per treatment. Floral and vegetative buds were counted the following spring. A separate experiment was initiated in 2005, with concentrations of 200 and 400 mg·L-1 a.i. applied in August and September. For the 2004 study, the greatest flower bud suppression resulted from repeat applications at 400 mg·L-1 a.i. Weekly applications from 7 July to 1 Sept. resulted in a 70% reduction in flower bud number, whereas three weekly applications from 18 Aug. to 1 Sept. reduced flower bud number by >88%. Neither treatment significantly reduced total bud numbers (vegetative + floral) compared to untreated and water-sprayed controls, indicating that the treatments did not reduce plant growth. Results for the 2005 treatments will also be presented.

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Precocious varieties of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) may overcrop during the first few seasons in the fruiting field, adversely affecting plant establishment. Reducing or preventing bloom in the nursery and during establishment would be beneficial in preventing early cropping and reducing the risk of infection by pollenborne viruses. We investigated the efficacy of foliar applications of GA4+7 for suppressing flower bud initiation in blueberry. One-year-old rooted cuttings of ‘Bluecrop’ were obtained from a commercial nursery and established in 11-L pots at the Philip E. Marucci Blueberry and Cranberry Research Center, Chatsworth, N.J. Three separate experiments were conducted over three seasons with ‘Bluecrop’ (and ‘Duke’ in 2005) highbush blueberry where foliar applications of GA4+7 were made at concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg·L−1 a.i., with timing treatments ranging from 7 July to 15 Sept., with 10 replicate plants per treatment. Floral and vegetative buds were counted the following spring. In the first study, the greatest degree of flower bud suppression resulted from applications at 400 mg·L−1 repeated weekly from 7 July to 1 Sept. However, these treatments also reduced total vegetative bud number and plant height. In the two subsequent studies, the largest treatment effect resulted from three weekly applications in late August and early September, where flower bud numbers were suppressed by 70% to 85% for ‘Bluecrop’ and 95% for ‘Duke’ while total vegetative growth was unaffected.

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Mature tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L. ‘Montmorency’) trees in a commercial orchard were subjected to irrigation deficits from pit hardening to harvest during the 2007 and 2008 seasons. Irrigation treatments ranged from 30% to 100% of a commercially managed application rate during the deficit period. Midday stem water potential measurements were significantly different among treatments before harvest. However, fresh weight yield at harvest did not differ significantly among irrigation treatments in either year (P = 0.64). In 2008, the amount of undersized fruit eliminated during packout was significantly higher in the treatments replacing 30% and 47% of the commercial irrigation level (P < 0.001), but only amounted to 2.0% and 1.4% of total yields, respectively. This small increase in undersized fruit did not significantly affect packout. Soluble solids concentration and chroma of intact fruit increased with the severity of the irrigation deficit and were inversely correlated with fruit water content.

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High tunnel (HT) winter production may be limited by extreme low air temperatures, suboptimal soil temperatures, large diurnal temperature changes, and short daylengths and associated low light conditions. To determine the productivity of spinach in extreme climates, HT production trials were conducted in the fall (October to December) and winter (January to March) of 2010–12 at the Greenville Research Farm in Logan, UT (lat. 41 N. elevation 1455 m). Soil heating (±) using electric cables and secondary covers (fabric rowcovers and plastic low tunnels) were evaluated to determine combined effects on fall and winter spinach production. Soil heating significantly increased yield in all cover treatments in the Fall 2010 (F2010) trial when spinach was planted in November, but had little to no effect on plant productivity in the other three trials (more appropriate planting dates) even though it did increase soil temperature marginally. The addition of secondary covers significantly increased plant biomass and leaf area when compared with the uncovered control. Excluding the F2011 trial when spinach was planted earlier under more favorable temperature and light conditions, the use of low tunnels resulted in significantly higher spinach yields (biomass and leaf area) than when grown under fabric rowcover. In the fall, relative growth rates (RGRs) decreased exponentially regardless of whether the soil was heated or not heated or if a secondary cover was used. This response was because of the seasonal decline in light levels and temperatures. In the winter production cycle, spinach relative growth without covers was similar or increased as climatic conditions improved. For plants grown under fabric or plastic rowcovers, RGR remained more constant or decreased during the production cycle. Increased yields were possible with secondary covers as air temperatures increase more quickly in the morning, maintained optimal temperatures longer each day (higher growing degree hours), and retained trapped heat later into the evening. Statistical interaction between heating cables and secondary covers were rarely observed. Fall and winter HT spinach production increases when further protection with secondary plant covers is provided; however, supplemental soil heating is not necessary.

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‘Montmorency’ tart cherry trees (Prunus cerasus L.) are grown commercially in the United States in low-density systems. Commercial tart cherry orchard design has not changed significantly over the past 50 years, but there is some variation from farm to farm in management strategies, including tree spacing, training, and pruning, and the resulting orchard production and turnover. Canopy dimensions and dynamics are important considerations for evaluating and improving orchard management strategies but are not well documented for tart cherry systems. Current orchard design and canopy management strategies were surveyed along a gradient of orchard age across five commercial farming operations in Utah. Trunk cross-sectional area and various canopy dimensions, including spread and volume, were quantified to capture tree size and canopy architecture. The survey indicated a surprising lack of deviation in orchard design in the region over the last several decades with higher variation among blocks within a farm than across farms. As a result, the survey revealed trends in tree growth and canopy structure across the range in orchard ages despite differences in management approaches of the surveyed farms. These trends were useful in illustrating canopy development and space fill. Tree age between 11 and 15 years after planting was determined to represent a transition between establishment and mature growth, where canopies filled available row space and began experiencing senescing canopy structure. Based on the distribution of ages captured in the survey, a significant number of orchards in Utah are at an age range of 11–15 years, perhaps contributing to superior yields per land area reported for the region. The confluence of space-fill and canopy development described in this study highlights a critical period for tart cherry orchard management at the transition of canopy establishment and maturity. These baseline dynamics will provide benchmarks for evaluating strategies for refining and improving orchard management systems for tart cherry in the Intermountain West region.

Open Access

In northern climates where the growing season is shortened by cool spring conditions, high tunnels make it possible to plant and produce tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at least 1 month earlier than in the field. However, limited high-tunnel research has been performed in arid high-elevation regions that experience extreme diurnal temperature fluctuations. High tunnels are designed to be passively heated; therefore, additional protection from frost may be warranted if growers wish to plant significantly earlier than normal. Low tunnels built within a high tunnel reduce the energy requirement by concentrating heat around the plants, particularly when a heat source is placed inside the low tunnel. ‘Sunbrite’ tomatoes were transplanted through black plastic mulch in four high tunnels in North Logan, UT (lat. 41.73° N, long. 111.83° W, 1382 m elevation) on 17 Mar., 30 Mar., and 7 Apr. in 2009 and on 19 Mar., 30 Mar., and 9 Apr. in 2010. Low tunnels were constructed over each row, and three supplemental heat treatments (unheated, soil-warming cables, and soil-warming cables plus 40-W incandescent lights) were tested to improve plant performance. The highest total marketable yield was achieved for earliest planting dates in both 2009 and 2010. In 2009, early-season yield was significantly greater when both the soil + air were heated, but only for the earliest planting date. In 2010, soil heat alone and in conjunction with air heat significantly improved early-season yield. Information gathered in this study on planting dates, yield, and energy costs provides valuable production and economic information to growers in arid high-elevation climates who desire the benefits of growing early-season tomatoes in high tunnels.

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The Gisela® series of dwarfing rootstock are widely used because they enable high-density production, but they may be sensitive to drought. Drought tolerance may be associated with root-zone distribution and depth or with physiological adaptation to low water potential. Here we describe a novel technique for determining physiological tolerance to drought when root distribution is held constant. In two matching studies, we continuously measured transpiration of two groups of eight trees using a 16-container automated weighing lysimeter system in a greenhouse. With this system, Gisela® 3, 5, and 12 (G.3, G.5, and G.12) rootstocks were subjected to multiple, controlled drought cycles based on reductions in whole-tree transpiration. To provide an equivalent amount of stress for each tree, water was withheld until the daily transpiration rate had decreased to less than 250 g of water transpired per tree per day. Each tree was then drip-irrigated to bring the root-zone back to about field capacity. G.3 and G.12 rootstocks more rapidly recovered to maximum transpiration rates compared with G.5 (an indication of ability to resume normal growth after a drought). At harvest, G.3 and G.12 rootstocks also had greater leaf area and trunk diameter. Both transpiration data and harvest data indicate physiological differences among rootstocks. Because root-zone volume was constant, these differences are not associated with changes in root distribution or depth. These data indicate that G.5 is less adapted for regulated deficit irrigation strategies that include long irrigation intervals.

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Temperate woody perennials produce proteins in the stem for seasonal nitrogen (N) storage. In Populus species, this seasonal N storage occurs primarily as a 32-kDa Bark Storage Protein (BSP), which can accumulate to 50% of total bark proteins during the winter. Plants of the Populus tremula × Populus alba (clone 717) were transformed with the BSP cDNA in antisense orientation (fused to a constitutive promoter), and regenerated lines were screened. Several independent antisense-BSP (A-BSP) lines were selected, which, after 4 weeks of SD photoperiod, showed 70% to 90% reduction in total BSP accumulation compared to the wild-type (WT). A series of experiments were conducted to compare LD growth of one A-BSP line to that of the WT. A-BSP plants showed reduced growth at both 5 and 50 mM ammonium nitrate fertilization. However, the higher N rate eventually resulted in toxicity in WT, but not in A-BSP plants. A-BSP plants grown hydroponically (0.5x Hoagland1s) showed altered partitioning with reduced stem length and increased leaf area (Leaf:stem dry-weight ratios were 14.8 and 20.9 for ABSP and WT, respectively). Partitioning to the roots was not different between A-BSP and WT. Proposed functions of BSP in seasonal and LD nitrogen metabolism will be discussed.

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