Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Beiquan Mou* x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All Modify Search
Author:

There is increasing medical evidence for the health benefits derived from dietary intake of carotenoid antioxidants, such as β-carotene and lutein. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve the nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. A breeding program to improve the nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) must start with an assessment of the existing genetic variation. To assess the genetic variability in carotenoid contents, 52 genotypes including crisphead, leaf, romaine, butterhead, primitive, Latin, and stem lettuces, and wild species were planted in the field in Salinas, Calif., in the Summer and Fall of 2003 with four replications. Duplicate samples from each plot were analyzed for chlorophyll (a and b), β-carotene, and lutein concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Wild accessions (L. serriola L., L. saligna L., L. virosa L., and primitive form) had higher β-carotene and lutein concentrations than cultivated lettuces, mainly due to the lower moisture content of wild lettuces. Among major types of cultivated lettuce, carotenoid concentration followed the order of: green leaf or romaine > red leaf > butterhead > crisphead. There was significant genetic variation in carotenoid concentration within each of these lettuce types. Crisphead lettuce accumulated more lutein than β-carotene, while other lettuce types had more β-carotene than lutein. Carotenoid concentration was higher in summer than in the fall, but was not affected by the position of the plant on the raised bed. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were highly correlated, suggesting that their levels could be enhanced simultaneously. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were both highly correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll concentrations, suggesting that carotenoid content could be selected indirectly through chlorophyll or color measurement. These results suggest that genetic improvement of carotenoid levels in lettuce is feasible.

Free access
Authors: and

Corky root is a major disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) observed in many production areas of the world. The pathogen Sphingomonas suberifaciens (van Bruggen et al.) Yabuuchi et al. varies with regard to virulence, and several strains have been isolated that can cause disease symptoms even on cultivars that have the only known resistance gene, cor. It is desirable to find new sources of resistance to diversify the genetic basis of the resistance and to confer resistance against isolates that are not adequately controlled by cor. More than 1000 plant introduction lines and cultivars were screened in assays conducted in the greenhouse, growth chamber, and field. Three L. serriola L. lines (PI 491239, PI 491096, and PI 491110) and a L. virosa L. line (PI 273597c) were highly resistant to corky root in all tests. Disease severity ratings in the field were correlated with the ratings in the greenhouse (r = 0.722) and in the growth chamber (r = 0.650). Significant genotype × environment interactions were observed for corky root severity. None of the four resistant lines had the two molecular markers closely linked to the cor allele. The information on disease resistance for these genotypes will be useful in future breeding work.

Free access
Authors: and

Salinity and nutrient-depleted soil are major constraints to crop production, especially for vegetable crops. The effects of salinity and nutrient deficiency on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were evaluated in sand cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plants were watered every day with Hoagland nutrition solution, deprived of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), or potassium (K) for nutrient deficiency, either with or without 20/10 mm sodium chloride (NaCl)/calcium chloride (CaCl2) for salinity treatment. Salinity significantly decreased shoot fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), leaf relative water content (RWC), and specific leaf area (SLA) relative to controls after 4 weeks of treatment and increased chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and photochemical yield [Y(II)]. Nitrogen deficiency greatly reduced shoot FW and DW, SLA, and chlorophyll content, regardless of salt treatment. Y(II) and Fv/Fm were reduced by N deficiency and salinity treatment. Phosphorous and K deficiencies, similarly, decreased shoot FW and DW irrespective of salinity treatment and increased chlorophyll content without salt stress. Phosphorous deficiency increased Y(II) under control and Fv/Fm under both control and salt treatment. Salinity and nutrient deficiency also affected the nutritional value of spinach. Salt stress increased carotenoid and flavonoid contents, and reducing power in full-strength Hoagland solution, and decreased leaf ferrous ion chelating ability (FICA). Nutrient deficiency increased reducing power regardless of salinity treatment. Nitrogen deficiency increased anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, decreased carotenoids and flavonoids regardless of salinity treatment, and increased antioxidant capacity under no-salt conditions. Phosphorous deficiency increased carotenoid and flavonoid contents under no-salt condition and enhanced total phenolic content and reduced FICA and amino acid content under salt stress. Potassium deficiency increased total phenolic, carotenoid, and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity under non-salt condition, but decreased FICA regardless of salinity treatment. These results suggest that spinach nutritional value could be improved with only moderately or slightly reduced yield through cultural practices that impose either low fertilizer levels or slight salt stress.

Free access
Authors: and

Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminers and to estimate the heritabilities of leafminer-resistant traits in the field, to examine the association among different resistant traits, and to study the mechanism of leafminer resistance in lettuce. Seventy-eight lettuce accessions and 232 F2 plants of crosses were evaluated for leafminer stings and the production of pupae and flies in the field in 2001 and 2002, and resistant genotypes were subjected to no-choice test. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) had significantly fewer stings than cultivated lettuces. Among cultivated lettuces, sting densities were lowest on leaf lettuce and highest on romaine types. The sting results from the field were highly correlated with the results from insect cages (r = 0.770 and 0.756 for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively), suggesting that a cage test can be used to screen for resistance in the field. Broad-sense heritability estimates for stings per unit leaf area in the field were 81.6% and 67.4% for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively. The number of pupae produced per plant or per leaf was moderately correlated with sting density but was not correlated with leaf weight. Results suggest that both antixenosis and antibiosis exist in lettuce germplasm and resistant genotypes from choice tests remain resistant under no-choice conditions. These findings suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

Free access