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  • Author or Editor: Astrid Volder x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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After an outbreak of blotch leafminer (Cameraria caryaefoliella) on field-grown pecan (Carya illinoinensis) trees in 2010, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the consequences of the injury on carbon assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency, and, in particular, to assess if low-to-moderate injury induces a compensatory increase in photosynthesis. Gas exchange and light-adapted fluorescence were measured on non-injured portions of the leaflet lamina adjacent to the injured area as well as on portions of leaflets that included leafminer injury. Results indicate that damage of the photosynthetic apparatus did not extend beyond the injured areas by leafminers. Furthermore, although a strong relationship between the proportion of leafminer injury and area-based net CO2 assimilation rate of injured leaflet tissue was found, there was no evidence that pecan leaves were able to compensate for leafminer injury by upregulating CO2 assimilation in leaflet tissue that was unaffected.

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A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water stress on leaf water potential, plant growth, and photosynthesis in purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata). Twenty 4-L pots with two plants in each pot were arranged in a completely randomized design. Ten pots received a daily irrigation dose of 100% evapotranspiration (ET) throughout the 43-day experiment (control). The other 10 pots were subjected to a reduced irrigation (RI) treatment, which was implemented stepwise to achieve a gradual increase in stress, by irrigating them with 50% ET first, then with 25% ET and, finally, with 10% ET. The last stress phase was followed by a recovery phase in which all treatments received the same amount of water (100% ET). A lower water potential was obtained at 10% ET compared with control plants (−2.51 and −0.98 MPa, respectively). Plants in both 25% and 10% ET irrigation treatments had reduced net CO2 assimilation rates (4.25 and 3.50 μmol·m−2·s−1, respectively) than plants watered with 100% ET (8.53 and 6.77 μmol·m−2·s−1, respectively). Values of maximum carboxylation rate allowed by rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), calculated 31 days after treatment (DAT) application (when RI plants were irrigated with 10% ET) decreased by ≈60%, whereas rate of photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use (TPU) were reduced by ≈30% and ≈45% in the stress treatment compared with the control during the 10% ET irrigation period, respectively. Values of water potential and net CO2 assimilation rates in previously stressed plants were not different from the control treatment in the recovery phase, suggesting that P. incarnata plants could adapt well to landscaping situations where periods of extreme drought can be expected.

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