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  • Author or Editor: Alan L. Wright x
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Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Belle Glade, FL, to evaluate the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in snap bean grown on organic soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of South Florida. Treatments consisting of increasing duration of weed interference and weed-free period were imposed at weekly intervals from 0 to 7 weeks after emergence (WAE) of snap bean. The beginning and end of the CPWC based on 2.5%, 5%, and 10% snap bean acceptable yield loss (AYL) levels were determined by fitting log-logistic and Gompertz models to represent increasing duration of weed interference and weed-free period, respectively. Based on 2.5% yield loss, the CPWC was 7.2 weeks long, beginning 1.2 (cotyledon and unifoliate leaf) and ending 8.4 WAE (mid-pod set, 50% of pods reached maximum length). At 5% yield loss, the CPWC was 5.0 weeks, beginning 1.7 (first to second trifoliate leaf) and ending 6.7 WAE (mid-flower to early pod set, 50% of flowers open and one pod reached maximum length). At 10% yield loss, the CPWC was 3.0 weeks, beginning 2.2 (second trifoliate leaf) and ending 5.2 WAE (early flowering, one open flower). Based on these results, the beginning of CPWC was hastened, whereas the end was delayed at different yield loss levels showing that acceptable weed control in snap bean on organic soils in the EAA is required throughout much of the growing season to minimize yield loss.

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Application of organic amendments can increase dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations, which may influence movement of nutrients and heavy metals in soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of compost sources and application rates on concentrations of soil DOC, NO3-N, and extractable P over 29 months after a one-time application of compost to bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] turf. Few differences were evident between compost sources for soil total organic C (TOC), DOC, and NO3-N. However, the initial P content of compost sources significantly influenced soil extractable P. Increasing the rate of compost application increased soil TOC initially, but levels remained fairly stable over time. In contrast, DOC continued to increase from 3 to 29 months after application, suggesting that compost mineralization and growth of bermudagrass contributed to DOC dynamics in soil. Dissolved organic C was 98%, 128%, 145%, 175%, and 179% greater 29 months after application of 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 Mg compost/ha, respectively, than before application. Rate of compost application had less effect on DOC than TOC, as DOC concentrations appeared controlled in part by bermudagrass growth patterns. Soil NO3-N was generally unaffected by compost application rate, as NO3-N decreased similarly for unamended soil and all compost treatments. Soil extractable P initially increased after compost application, but increasing the application rate generally did not increase P from 3 to 29 months. Seasonal or cyclical patterns of TOC, DOC, and extractable P were observed, as significantly lower levels of these parameters were observed in dormant stages of bermudagrass growth during cooler months.

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Compost application to turfgrasses may contribute to accumulation of macronutrients in soil and eventually pose leaching and runoff hazards. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of compost on soil-dissolved organic C (DOC) and accumulation of NH4OAc-EDTA-extractable and water-soluble nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) in St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] turf. Dissolved organic C increased from 3 to 29 months after application for unamended and compost-amended soils, indicating contribution from decomposition of both compost and St. Augustinegrass residues. Dissolved organic C was 75%, 78%, and 101% greater 29 months after application of 0, 80, and 160 mg·ha−1 of compost, respectively, than before application. Dissolved organic C and macronutrients exhibited considerable seasonal variation, because DOC and EDTA-extractable P, Ca, Mg, and S increased after compost application, whereas NO3 declined. Water-soluble K, Ca, and Mg declined, whereas P and S increased from 0 to 29 months. Similar seasonal changes in macronutrient concentrations occurred for unamended and compost-amended soil, indicating that composts, in addition to turfgrass residues, influenced DOC and macronutrient dynamics. Long-term nutrient accumulation occurred in compost-amended turfgrass, but seasonal dynamics were more related to the growth stage of turfgrass than compost. Formation of DOC-cation complexes appeared to contribute to macronutrient mobility, because decreases in DOC and nutrient concentrations occurred during turfgrass dormancy in winter and after high precipitation levels, indicating the potential for leaching of DOC-associated nutrients from soil.

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The prevalence of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida has forced growers to search for new management strategies to optimize fruit yield in young orchards and enable earlier economic returns given the likelihood of HLB-induced yield reductions during later years. There has been considerable interest in modifying orchard architecture design and fertilizer and irrigation management practices as strategies for increasing profitability. Our objectives were to evaluate how different combinations of horticultural practices including tree density, fertilization methods, and irrigation systems affect growth, foliar nutrient content, fruit yield, and fruit quality of young ‘Valencia’ sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees during the early years of production under HLB-endemic conditions. The study was conducted in Fort Pierce, FL, from 2014 to 2020 on a 1- to 7-year-old orchard and evaluated the following treatments: standard tree density (358 trees/ha) and controlled-release fertilizer with microsprinkler irrigation (STD_dry_MS), high tree density (955 trees/ha) with fertigation and microsprinkler irrigation (HDS_fert_MS), and high tree density with fertigation and double-line drip irrigation (HDS_fert_DD). Annual foliar nutrient concentrations were usually within or higher than the recommended ranges throughout the study, with a tendency for decreases in several nutrients over time regardless of treatment, suggesting all fertilization strategies adequately met the tree nutrient demand. During fruit-bearing years, canopy volume, on a per-tree basis, was higher under STD_dry_MS (6.2–7.2 m3) than HDS_fert_MS (4.3–5.3 m3) or HDS_fert_DD (4.9–5.9 m3); however, high tree density resulted in greater canopy volume on an area basis, which explained the 86% to 300% increase in fruit yield per ha that resulted in moving from standard to high tree density. Although fruit yields per ha were generally greatest under HDS_fert_MS and HDS_fert_DD, they were lower than the 10-year Florida state average (26.5 Mg·ha−1) for standard tree density orchards, possibly due to the HLB incidence and the rootstock chosen. Although tree growth parameters and foliar nutrient concentrations varied in response to treatments, management practices that included high tree density and fertigation irrespective of irrigation systems produced the highest fruit yields and highest yield of solids. Soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) were lower, and the SSC-to-TA ratio was highest under STD_dry_MS in 2016–17, with no treatment effects on quality parameters detected in other years. Both drip and microsprinkler fertigation methods sufficiently met tree nutrient demand at high tree density, but additional research is needed to determine optimal fertilization rates and better rootstock cultivars in young high-density sweet orange orchards under HLB-endemic conditions in the Indian River Citrus District.

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