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  • Author or Editor: Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Pomegranate [Punica granatum (Punicaceae)] is characterized by having two types of flowers on the same tree: hermaphroditic bisexual flowers and functionally male flowers. This condition, defined as functional andromonoecy, can result in decreased yields resulting from the inability of male flowers to set fruit. Morphological and histological analyses of bisexual and male flowers were conducted using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize the different flower types observed in pomegranate plants and to better understand their developmental differences. Bisexual flowers had a discoid stigma covered with copious exudate, elongated stigmatic papillae, a single elongate style, and numerous stamens inserted on the inner wall of the calyx tube. Using fluorescence staining, high numbers of pollen tubes were observed growing through a central stylar canal. Ovules were numerous, elliptical, and anatropous. In contrast, male flowers had reduced female parts and exhibited shortened pistils of variable heights. Stigmatic papillae of male flowers had little exudate yet supported pollen germination. However, pollen tubes were rarely observed in styles. Ovules in male flowers were rudimentary and exhibited various stages of degeneration. Pollen from both types of flowers was of similar size, ≈20 μm, and exhibited similar percent germination using in vitro germination assays. Pollen germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Maximal germination (greater than 74%) was obtained at 25 and 35 °C; pollen germination was significantly lower at 15 °C (58%) and 5 °C (10%).

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