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  • Author or Editor: A. N. Kishaba x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Resistance to muskmelon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was transferred by successive backcrossing without selection from Cucumis melo L. cv. Gulfstream to a breeding line of muskmelon resistant to the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover), as a single recessive gene. This hypothesis is supported by the shift of resistant plants from 50 to 100% resistance in backcrossed and inbred progenies. The same gene, designated nsv for necrotic spot virus, for resistance was shown to be present in ‘PMR-5′ and ‘Planters Jumbo’. This finding documents the value of repeated backcrosses in breeding programs designed to transfer single gene characters from exotic sources into adaptive cultivars.

Open Access

Abstract

Reproduction of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, varied on different plants of Cucumis melo L., PI 371795, and its inbreds. Successive generations of selection and inbreeding increased uniformity and potency of antibiosis. Aphid reproduction on F1, F2, and backcross hybrids from a resistant × susceptible cross indicated that a single, dominant major gene conferred some antibiosis; but variation within resistant and susceptible classes indicated that additional, minor genes caused effects similar to those found in resistant inbreds.

Open Access

Abstract

A collection of Lactuca saligna (P.I. 261653), although heterozygous, contained individuals that retard the development of cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni Hubner) compared with preferred hosts such as cultivars of lettuce and broccoli. Development of 1st instar to adult required 5 to 6 days longer on L. saligna than on broccoli. Comparable development of lst-instar larvae to 2nd instar required 32 hours more for larvae fed exclusively on leaves of L. saligna than for those confined to L. sativa cv. Hanson. Also, more significantly, in this test 26% of the larvae died before the 2nd-instar stage compared to 0% in the control.

Interspecific hybrids between L. saligna and L. sativa were produced. The F1 plants were fertile to a limited extent. These interspecific crosses will allow an exchange of genes between the 2 species and make possible the development of lettuce cultivars resistant to the cabbage looper.

Five collections of L. saligna (other than P.I. 261653) were evaluated for their effect on looper development from 1st to 2nd instar. A significant delay in larval development was established for 2 entries (P.I. 253299 and P.I. 281876). However, they were more preferred than P.I. 261653 in a preference test. A collection of Lactuca species, consisting of 19 entries were tested for antibiosis. Two entries listed as L. perennis L. were uncovered where development from 1st instar to 2nd instar was suppressed. This result suggests that antibiosis for cabbage looper is not widespread in the genus, but probably fairly common in L. saligna as evidenced by plant to plant variation among numerous collections.

Open Access

Abstract

Resistance to the western biotypes of Aphis gossypii Glover in Cucumis melo L. breeding line LJ 90234 (inbred of P.I. 371395 from India) included tolerance expressed as freedom from curling of leaves following aphid infestation. The flat and curled phenotypes in progenies from a cross of this line with cv. PMR 45 were differentiated by a single gene, melon aphid tolerance (Ag, Aphis gossypii tolerance) with flat leaves dominant. Tolerance expressed as nearly normal ht of F1 and some F2 plants following mass infestation appeared to be less simply inherited. Its measurement was masked by inherent variation in growth rate and environmental factors including variation in insect attack.

LJ 90230, selected from P.I. 161375 from Korea, was stunted by the aphid but its leaves remained free from curl. F2 hybrids from the cross 90234 × 90230 were free from curl but they varied in stunting after aphid attack. Single-peaked distribution curves for ht suggested complex inheritance of tolerance. LJ 90254, selected from P.I. 255478 from Korea, possessed tolerance to aphids expressed as freedom from stunting and curling. F2 plants from the cross 90234 × 90254 were free from curl but varied in ht after aphid attack. The single-peaked distribution curves suggested complex inheritance of tolerance.

Open Access

Abstract

In the paper, Studies of Ovlpositional Preference of Cabbage Looper on Progenies from a Cross between Cultivated Lettuce and Prickly Lettuce by A. N. Kishaba, J. D. McCreight, D. L. Coudriet, T. W. Whitaker, and G. R. Pesho (J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105(6):890–892. 1980), the last sentence of the first paragraph should read: Two of the plant introductions, PI261653 (Lactuca saiigna) and PI274372 (L. serriola) were less preferred as oviposition sites (7). In addition, reference 2 of the literature cited should be deleted and references 3 through 12 should be renumbered 2 to 11 to accurately correspond with citations in the text.

Open Access

Abstract

When moths of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), were exposed to 208 entries of lettuce, significant reduction in oviposition occurred on 8 cultivars, 4 breeding lines, and 17 Plant Introductions. Preference for any 1 cultivar varied depending on the host choice offered. Looper moths preferred younger lettuce plants when plantings of 1 host entry were made as little as 1 week apart. One introduction, each, of Lactuca serriola L. and L. saligna L. were less attractive to looper moths than any entry of L. sativa, and may be valuable sources of resistance to that insect pest.

Open Access

Abstract

F1 progenies from a cross between Lactuca sativa L. breeding line 54671 and L. serriola L. PI 274372 (resistant to the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), averaged 42 ± 6 looper eggs per plant, compared to 213 ± 25 for the 54671 parent and 17 ± 4 for PI 274372. Two F2 populations varied widely in plant damage inflicted by the resulting larvae when they were exposed to 4 releases of adult loopers but the damage distribution was skewed towards the resistant parent. Antixenosis of 16 F3 progenies was independent of plant size (r ranged from 0.02 to 0.52) and of plant type (r ranged from 0.00 to 0.57).

Open Access