Stock plants of Pelargonium zonale `Empress' were grown for 130 days on coarse tuff medium in a greenhouse. Four N concentrations (50, 100,200, and 400 mg N/liter) and three NO3-: NH4+: ratios (70:30, 60:40, and 40:60) were applied. The development of mother plants, production of cuttings, and the recovery of applied N were measured. Number of cuttings was not affected by any treatments except for the low N concentration. The proportion of absorbed N was higher than that of water in the plants treated with 50 or 100 mg N/liter, while those fertilized with 200 or 400 mg N/liter absorbed more water relative to N uptake. Nitrogen recovery efficiency decreased from 70% to 10% for the 50- to 400-mg N/liter treatments, respectively. Percentage of applied N lost by leaching (30% to 70%), and N that could not be accounted for (0.5% to 20%), increased with increasing N concentration and NH4+ percentage in the solution. The minimum concentration to be used in fertilization of Pelargonium mother plants is 100 mg N/liter. Optimal N supplied ranged between 100 and 200 mg N/liter.
Ocean spray carried by wind was determined from soil and leaf analysis, determination of salt content in the atmosphere, and meteorological data to be the main cause for the destruction of vegetation along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. An overhead sprinkling system, which was activated when the wind speed reached a critical level, prevented plant damage.