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- Author or Editor: L. L. Morris x
`Sunbelt' is a juice grape cultivar developed by the Univ. of Arkansas. This cultivar produces `Concord'-type juice and is adapted to climatic conditions of the southern United States. Preliminary evaluation showed that `Sunbelt' has potential to produce high-quality juice under the hot climatic conditions of the San Joaquin Valley. A study was conducted during the 1998 and 1999 seasons to further evaluate the adaptation of `Sunbelt' to San Joaquin Valley conditions and determine the response of this cultivar to selected pruning methods. Vines of uniform vine size and vigor were subjected to four pruning treatments: severe hand-pruning (60 to 80 nodes retained/vine); moderate hand-pruning (120 to 160 nodes retained/vine); machine-pruning (160 to 180 nodes retained/vine); and minimal pruning (200 to 400 nodes retained/vine). Vines were trained to a Geneva Double Curtain trellis system. Yield and components of yield were significantly impacted by pruning treatment. In both seasons, mechanized systems of pruning (machine or minimal) produced higher yield than hand pruning. Minimal pruning resulted in the highest yield in 1998, while yield from machine-pruned vines was highest in 1999. Minimally pruned vines had the highest clusters/vine, lowest cluster weight, and lowest berry weight among the treatments. Fruit composition was also affected by pruning treatment. Minimal pruning produced fruit which was less mature than fruit from the other treatments in 1998. This result was likely due to the high yield obtained. Few differences in fruit composition were observed among treatments in 1999. The effect of pruning method on processed juice quality will be presented. Acceptable juice quality was obtained for most treatments.
Fruit samples of grape (Vitis labrusca L., cv. Concord) from 6 vineyard locations were collected at 7 to 10-day intervals beginning prior to veraison and continuing through development of 16% soluble solids for a period of 19 years. The 19-year average date for peak bloom in these vineyards was May 19, for 8% soluble solids development was July 27 (69 days from peak bloom), and for 16% soluble solids development was August 23 (96 days from peak bloom). Heat unit summations were more closely related to development of soluble solids than to changes in either titratable acidity or color. Using degree-day accumulations and effective heat unit summations did not prove to be methods superior to use of the number of calendar days for predicting grape maturation. Predictions from 8 to 16% soluble solids development were more accurate than predicting from peak bloom (when 50% of clusters showed bloom). Variations between years and between vineyard locations within a given year prevented accurate predictions from the 3 methods. Other deterrents observed in predicting development of soluble solids included the cultural variables of fruit load and soil moisture.
Four of 7 strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) clones tested did not benefit in total yield from 1 or 2 hand pickings prior to once-over machine harvest. Four of the clones could be hand picked once without a significant reduction in machine harvested yields. Two clones were low yielding regardless of the harvest method. ‘Sunrise’, a high once-over yielding clone, increased in total yield with hand harvesting but fruit were soft and poorly colored and lacked good field holding and in-plant handling capabilities. ‘Cardinal’ represented a clone with fruit quality and a ripening pattern suitable to a combination of hand and machine harvesting. Fruit remaining on the plants after 1 or 2 hand harvests had a higher percentage of ripe fruit in the once-over harvest than machine harvested fruit not preceded by a hand harvest. The composite once-over machine harvested fruit after 1 or 2 hand pickings showed the same or higher soluble solids, shear press firmness, puree viscosity and color intensity as hand harvested fruit. In clones with high quality fruit, the presence of immature fruit in the onceover harvest did not detract from puree color or flavor acceptability. Selection A-5344 possessed both yield and quality characteristics desired for a completely mechanized harvest for processing.
The response of an Arkansas breeding-line 5344 of strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) to 0, 1 or 2 hand pickings prior to once-over machine harvest and to the timing of the machine harvest was examined for 3 years on the same planting. Increased yields from 1 or 2 hand pickings prior to machine harvest were lost by delaying machine harvest past the estimated optimum time (80 to 85% ripe fruit). Machine-harvested yield was reduced by hand picking and/or by delaying the time of machine harvest past the optimum period. Machine- harvested fruit quality was reduced in % soluble solids, acidity and color compared to the quality of hand-picked fruit but tended to improve as the number of hand pickings prior to machine harvest increased. Organoleptic evaluations of fruit puree from all harvesting treatments were rated acceptable.
In the United States, urban population growth, improved living standards, limited development of new water supplies, and dwindling current water supplies are causing the demand for treated municipal water to exceed the supply. Although water used to irrigate the residential urban landscape will vary according to factors such as landscape type, management practices, and region, landscape irrigation can vary from 40% to 70% of household use of water. So, the efficient use of irrigation water in urban landscapes must be the primary focus of water conservation. In addition, plants in a typical residential landscape often are given more water than is required to maintain ecosystem services such as carbon regulation, climate control, and preservation of aesthetic appearance. This implies that improvements in the efficiency of landscape irrigation will yield significant water savings. Urban areas across the United States face different water supply and demand issues and a range of factors will affect how water is used in the urban landscape. The purpose of this review is to summarize how irrigation and water application technologies; landscape design and management strategies; the relationship among people, plants, and the urban landscape; the reuse of water resources; economic and noneconomic incentives; and policy and ordinances impact the efficient use of water in the urban landscape.