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  • Author or Editor: James N. Moore x
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‘Allgold’ and ‘Goldilocks’ are 2 new cultivars of clingstone peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] with nonmelting flesh texture suitable for processing. Both are earlier ripening than ‘Babygold 5’ and possess good processing qualities. ‘Allgold’ is notable for its high tolerance to bacterial spot.

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Three ornamental peaches and one ornamental nectarine were released in 1992 from the Arkansas peach breeding program. `Tom Thumb' is a red-leaf dwarf peach with attractive foliage that is retained throughout summer. `Leprechaun' is a green-leaf dwarf nectarine with small but attractive, freestone fruits. `Crimson Cascade' and `Pink Cascade' are red-leaf peaches with trees of standard size that exhibit a weeping growth habit. `Crimson Cascade' produces double flowers that are dark red while `Pink Cascade' double flowers are pink. The attractive plants of these cultivars should be of value in home landscapes.

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Floral initiation (FI) was studied both in greenhouse- and field-grown plants of primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries recently developed by the Univ. of Arkansas. Root cuttings of A-1836 and APF-13 were dug from the field and planted in a greenhouse on 1 Mar. 1997. NC 194 was included only in the field study. Terminal apices were sampled weekly starting at 0 (just before emergence) nodes of growth on 21 Mar. Floral primordia were first seen at five and six nodes of growth in greenhouse-grown A-1836 and APF-13, respectively, 35-42 days after root cuttings were planted (DAP). Under field conditions, the same event was not observed until 21 May when A-1836 and APF-13 reached at least 20 nodes; NC 194 did not show evidence of floral parts until 10 July. Once FI occurred, floral differentiation proceeded uninterrupted until completion. Blooming occurred 32-35 and 40-45 days after FI in APF-13 and A-1836, respectively; NC 194 bloomed in late August. The first fruits of APF-13 were harvested 120 DAP. These findings demonstrate that PF blackberries form flower buds soon after a short period of vegetative growth. This information should be useful for implementing horticultural practices, such as programming of the harvest date.

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This research was conducted to compare an in vitro leaf disk technique with greenhouse and field evaluations for screening large populations of grape (Vitis sp.) seedlings for downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Berl. & de Toni) resistance. Seedlings produced by crossing resistant × resistant, resistant × susceptible, and susceptible × susceptible parents were rated for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis. Leaf disk sporulation ratings at the first and second rating were highly correlated with the second sporulation rating in the field. Necrosis ratings from the leaf disk evaluations were significantly correlated with field necrosis ratings, but leaf disk chlorosis ratings were not correlated with field ratings. Some correlations, including evaluations of chlorosis, between the greenhouse and field ratings were highly significant. Seedling ratings of 0 or 1 for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis in the leaf disk assay agreed with field evaluations 85.6% of the time vs. 80.3% agreement between greenhouse and field ratings. Sporulation was the parameter most highly correlated between leaf disk or greenhouse and field evaluation of resistance. The leaf disk procedure appeared to be a good predictor of field resistance, and is more practical than the greenhouse method for screening large populations.

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A study was conducted to determine how resistance to downy mildew [Plasmopara viticola (Bert. & Curt.) Berl. & de Toni] is inherited in germplasm (Vitis vinifera L., V. labrusca L., V. rupestris Scheele, and V. riparia Michx.) used for breeding table grapes. Crosses, including reciprocals, among parents possessing different levels of downy mildew resistance were evaluated in 1994 and 1995. The proportion of foliar tissue with sporulation, chlorosis, or necrosis was used to measure resistance. All genotypes were rated for these characters on two separate dates in 1994 and 1995. Hypersensitive flecking was also evaluated in the 1995 seedlings to determine its relationship with downy mildew resistance. Crosses with at least one resistant parent had a larger number of resistant offspring than crosses between two susceptible parents. General combining ability (GCA) effects were highly significant for 1994 and 1995. Specific combining ability effects were significant, but were relatively small compared to GCA, suggesting additive gene action was a primary influence on downy mildew resistance. Heritability estimates for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis were the highest at the second rating in 1994 (0.88, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively) and 1995 (0.50, 0.60, and 0.60, respectively). Reciprocal crosses indicated that maternal inheritance did not influence downy mildew resistance. A small percentage of progeny with hypersensitive flecking were identified from the germplasm. Seedlings with the flecking characteristic tended to have lower sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis ratings earlier in the growing season.

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