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Abstract

Root-zone temperature (RZT) of 15 landscape planting sites in a metropolitan area was monitored from 13 June to 5 Sept. 1985. RZT was highest at urban sites associated with city surface materials, such as asphalt and concrete. The RZT was significantly lower at suburban and woodland sites. Temperature was uniform throughout the root zone at sites along urban streets; it decreased with increasing depth at all other sites. High temperature extremes may contribute to the decline of landscape plants at urban sites.

Open Access

The capacity to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobia is common among species in the Papilionoideae subfamily of the Leguminosae, but nodulation and nitrogen fixation have never been documented in Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd (American yellowwood). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that C. kentukea is nodulated by rhizobia. Seedlings were grown in sterile vermiculite and irrigated with a nitrogen-free nutrient solution. In one experiment, the vermiculite was inoculated with rhizobia that nodulate Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim., a closely related tree species. During a second experiment, the vermiculite was inoculated with samples of soil collected near trees of C. kentukea in a native stand in Alexander County, Illinois. There were no nodules on roots of seedlings harvested 6 weeks after inoculation in either experiment. These results represent strong additional evidence that C. kentukea does not form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobia.

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Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. associates with N2-fixing rhizobia, but variation in N2 fixation among genotypes of this species is not known. We determined the effect of N2 fixation on growth of plants from seven half-sib families known to differ in seed mass and seedling growth when provided N. Seedlings were grown in Leonard jars for 12 weeks in a greenhouse. Mass of control plants provided N and nodule mass on plants inoculated with rhizobia (USDA 4349) and not provided N differed among families. Among plants not provided N, inoculation did not increase dry matter but did reduce chlorosis. Therefore, plant N content also will be discussed as an indicator of efficiency of N2 fixation. Results indicate N2 fixation improves plant quality in low-N soils but will not eliminate the need for N applications during seedling production.

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The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of plant growth regulators applied as foliar sprays on height and branching of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica). Five chemical plant growth regulators were applied: ancymidol [15, 25, and 50 mg·L–1 (ppm)] (A-Rest; Elanco Products Co., Indianapolis), dikegulac sodium (500, 1000, and 1500 mg.L–1) (Atrimmec; PBI/Gordon Corp., Kansas City, Mo.), paclobutrazol (10, 20, and 60 mg·L–1) (Bonzi; Uniroyal Chemical Co., Middlebury, Conn.), chlormequat chloride (CCC) (750, 1000, and 1500 mg·L–1) (Cycocel; Olympic Horticultural Products, Mainland, Pa.), and CCC/daminozide mixes (1000/2500, 1000/5000, and 1500/5000 mg·L–1) (Cycocel and B-Nine; Uniroyal Chemical Co.). Ten replicate plants of each concentration were evaluated weekly for plant height and number of branches for 8 weeks. Plants that received CCC and CCC/daminozide treatments at all concentrations and paclobutrazol at 60 mg·L–1 were 60%, 60%, and 48% shorter than control plants and had 113%, 100%, and 75% more branches than control plants, respectively. All concentrations of ancymidol and dikegulac sodium-treated plants were similar to control plants. Paclobutrazol was applied twice, and only the highest concentration was effective for height control. Chlormequat chloride at the lowest concentration was as effective as all other concentrations of CCC and CCC/daminozide.

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Scotch laburnum [Laburnum alpinum (Mill.) Bercht.], Amur maackia (Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim.), and Chinese wisteria [Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet] were inoculated with compatible rhizobia and treated with leaching fractions (LF) of 0, 0.2, and 0.4 using fertilizer solutions with 3.6 and 10.7 mol N/m3 for 10 weeks. LF did not affect plant dry mass, leaf area, or stem length. Growth was higher among plants provided 10.7 mol N/m3, but only plants provided 3.6 mol N/m3 formed root nodules. We conclude that growth is not reduced by eliminating leaching during the first 10 weeks of seedling development, and that application of 10.7 mol N/m3 prevents nodulation of these species.

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Many members of the citrus family (Rutaceae) are valued for the aromatic compounds emitted by their flowers. Ptelea species are unusually cold-hardy members of the Rutaceae, but conflicting descriptions of the fragrance of their unisexual flowers may discourage the use of these trees. We analyzed floral volatiles and human response to these chemicals to test the hypothesis that the fragrance of staminate and pistillate flowers of these species differs. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that most volatile chemicals emitted by flowers of Ptelea trifoliata and Ptelea crenulata are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and esters. Most volatiles were emitted from flowers of both sexes, but ethyl benzoate and estragole were emitted only from pistillate flowers. When concentrations of aromatics differed between sexes, they were higher for pistillate flowers, except for cis-3-hexenyl butanoate and an unidentified terpene. For P. crenulata and P. trifoliata, respectively, 81% and 77% of survey responses were from volunteers who liked the fragrance. Panelists most frequently described the scent of flowers of P. crenulata of both sexes with the words citrus, lime, and sweet. Panelists distinguished between pistillate and staminate flowers of P. trifoliata, describing the odor of pistillate flowers most frequently with the words damp-earthy, spicy, and sweet; staminate flowers were perceived as light, fresh, grassy, and pleasant. This work represents the first analysis of floral volatiles of P. crenulata and resolves conflicting prior reports regarding the floral fragrance of P. trifoliata. We conclude that differences among people rather than the sex of flowers account for conflicting prior reports of floral fragrance. The scents of flowers of P. crenulata and P. trifoliata appeal to most people and are horticultural assets of these trees.

Open Access

Growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants decreases at root-zone temperatures (RZTs) >30 °C, but no research has been conducted on the effects of changes in root respiration on P acquisition at supraoptimal RZT. We monitored the changes every 3 to 5 days in root respiration, root surface phosphatase activity, and P acquisition of `Jet Star' tomato plants grown in Hoagland's no. 1 solution held at 25 and 36 °C RZT for 19 days. Root respiration rate in plants grown at 25 °C increased linearly from RZT initiation to day 12, but there was no difference in respiration between days 12 and 19. Root respiration at 36 °C, however, increased from RZT initiation to day 8 and then decreased. Shoot P concentration and root phosphatase activity for plants grown at 25 °C did not change during the experiment. Shoot P concentration for plants at 36 °C, however, linearly decreased over time, and root phosphatase activity linearly increased over time. Decreased shoot growth and demand for P along with decreased root respiration after day 8 probably resulted in the decreased P uptake and shoot P concentration in plants grown at 36 °C RZT.

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Carolina buckthorn [Rhamnus caroliniana Walt. or Frangula caroliniana (Walt.) Gray] is an attractive and water-stress-resistant shrub or small tree distributed extensively in the southeastern United States that merits use in managed landscapes. Due to substantial climatic differences within its distribution (30-year normal midwinter minima range from 13 to -8 °C), selection among provenances based on differences in cold hardiness is warranted. Before selections are marketed, the potential of carolina buckthorn to be invasive also merits investigation. Ecological problems resulting from the introduction of Rhamnus L. species in the United States, most notably the dominance of R. cathartica L. (common buckthorn) over neighboring taxa, are due in part to early budbreak. Consequently, we investigated depth of cold hardiness and vernal budbreak of carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn. Stem samples of carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn collected in midwinter survived temperatures as low as -21 and -24 °C, respectively. Although the cold hardiness of carolina buckthorns from Missouri was greater than that of carolina buckthorns from Ohio and Texas on 2 Apr. 2003, there were no differences in cold hardiness of stems from Missouri and Texas on all three assessment dates in the second experiment. All plants survived at both field locations except for the carolina buckthorns from southern Texas planted in Iowa, which showed 0% and 17% survival in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Budbreak of both species with and without mulch in Ames, Iowa, was recorded from 9 Apr. to 10 May 2002. Mean budbreak of common buckthorn was 5.7 days earlier than budbreak of carolina buckthorn, and buds of mulched carolina buckthorns broke 4.2 days earlier than did buds of unmulched carolina buckthorns. We conclude that the cold hardiness of carolina buckthorn is sufficient to permit the species to be planted outside of its natural distribution. Populations of carolina buckthorn in Ohio and Missouri should be the focus of efforts to select genotypes for use in regions with harsh winters. Phenology of its budbreak suggests carolina buckthorn will not be as invasive as common buckthorn, but evaluation of additional determinants of invasiveness is warranted.

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Our objectives were to test whether Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. nodulates and fixes N and to characterize the N-fixing bacteria effective with this host. Soil samples were collected near diverse legume trees at arboreta and public gardens in the United States, Canada, and China. Seedlings of M. amurensis were grown for 6 weeks in a low-N, sterile medium and inoculated with soil samples. At harvest, nodules were found on the lateral and upper portions of root systems. Bacteria were isolated from nodules and subculture. Roots of seedlings inoculated with all 11 of these isolates nodulated and freed N, confirming that the isolates were rhizobial bacteria. Growth of isolates in axenic culture generally was poor when single sources of C were provided. Generation times of the isolates ranged from 6 to 10 hours, and all isolates raised the pH of culture media. Isolates were highly resistant to several antibiotics, showed no 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) or β-galactosidase activity, and were highly sensitive to NaCl. These results provide the first evidence that M. amurensis has the capacity to form N-fixing symbioses with rhizobial bacteria and indicate that the bacteria are Bradyrhizobium sp.

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Abstract

Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) plants were evaluated for their responses to 5 weeks of constant root-zone temperatures from 18 to 36C. Shoot lengths of plants grown with 18 to 30C root zones did not differ significantly from one another at any time during the study, and shoot dry weights of these plants were similar. However, after 21 days of exposure, shoot length of plants grown with roots at 36C was significantly less than that of plants with roots grown at 30C and below. Leaf area was greatest among plants with roots at 24C, and mean shoot and root dry weights of plants in the 36C treatment were 57% and 68% less, respectively, than those for plants with roots at 30C. Leaf diffusive resistance of plants grown at 36C was five times greater than for plants with root zones at 30C or below. Shoot water potential decreased with increasing temperature, but increased solute concentration in leaves of 36C-grown plants probably contributed to turgor maintenance.

Open Access