Benzimidazoles are effective and widely used fungicides, but they may be phytotoxic. We studied the effects of a single drench application of six benzimidazoles and one acetanilide fungicide on photosynthetic gas exchange, growth, development, and nutrient levels of four species of bedding plants in twenty growth-chamber and four greenhouse studies. Daily carbon gain and carbon-use efficiency were calculated from continuous crop gas-exchange measurements in the growth chambers. The maximum labeled rate of Benlate DF caused a 7- to 10-day decrease in net photosynthesis and daily carbon gain in transplants of all species. It also caused pronounced interveinal chlorosis and a 2- to 3-day delay in flowering. Growth of Benlate DF-treated plants was reduced more at high (90%) than at low (60% to 80%) relative humidity. Benlate DF had severe effects on 2-week-old petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) seedlings in plug flats, reducing photosynthesis 25% to 57%. Cleary's 3336 WP decreased photosynthesis in some trials. Benlate DF reduced photosynthesis within 24 hours, but 3336 WP effects did not become apparent until 1 week after the treatment. This suggests different modes of inhibition. 3336 WP also caused leaf-tip and marginal chlorosis in impatiens (Impatiens wallerana). Mertect 340-F was extremely phytotoxic but is not labeled for drench applications (it was included because of its chemical similarity to other benzimidazoles). The only benzimidazole fungicide that did not reduce photosynthesis was Derosal, but it caused slight interveinal chlorosis in some studies with petunia. Benlate DF and Derosal decreased leaf Ca levels. Subdue (or metalaxyl), an acetanilide fungicide, did not affect photosynthesis or cause any visual symptoms. Our results indicate that some benzimidazole fungicides can cause growth reductions and visual damage in bedding plants.
Marc W. van Iersel and Bruce Bugbee
Marc W. van Iersel and Bruce Bugbee
Dibutylurea (DBU), a breakdown product of benomyl, may be partially responsible for the previously reported phytotoxicity of the fungicide Benlate DF. We quantified the effect of DBU on the growth of two popular bedding plant species, petunia (Petunia × hybrida) and impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.). DBU reduced photosynthesis of both species, and its effect strongly depended on the amount of DBU applied. The effects of DBU were most apparent 2 to 4 days after treatment, at which time 1.20 g·m-2 (corresponding to 10% DBU in Benlate DF at maximum labeled drench rate) inhibited photosynthesis completely. DBU also decreased flower number and caused marginal necrosis. DBU effects were more pronounced in low relative humidity. Benlate DF containing 3.1% DBU and an equivalent amount of reagent grade DBU had similar effects on photosynthesis and petunia necrosis. Our results showed that DBU is responsible for at least part of the phytotoxic symptoms that can be caused by Benlate DF. However, other ingredients or breakdown products may also contribute to the phytotoxic symptoms of Benlate DF.
Manuel G. Astacio and Marc W. van Iersel
Previous work has shown that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applications can reduce transpiration, delay wilting, and thereby extend the shelf life of unwatered plants. Paradoxically, we have seen that drenches with concentrated ABA solutions may actually induce wilting. These wilting symptoms occur despite the presence of ample water in the substrate, suggesting that ABA may interfere with the ability of roots to take up water. Our objective was to develop a better understanding of this wilting effect using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a model. In the first study, ABA drenches (125–2000 mg·L−1) reduced transpiration and water use compared with the control plants, yet the relative water content (RWC) of the leaves of ABA-treated plants was lower than that of control plants at 24 h after the ABA drench. Control plants had a leaf RWC of 97%, whereas plants treated ABA had a RWC of 57% to 62%. ABA concentrations of 500 mg·L−1 or higher caused the plants to wilt within 24 h despite the presence of ample water in the substrate. Leaf ABA concentrations 24 h after the ABA application ranged from 2.6 (control) to 62.6 nmol·g−1 fresh weight (FW) in the 2000-mg·L−1 ABA treatment, indicating effective transport of ABA from the roots to the leaves. The reduced leaf RWC suggests that ABA drenches are limiting water transport through the roots to the leaves. The effects of ABA on the hydraulic conductance of the roots and stems of tomatoes were quantified to determine if ABA drenches limit water transport through the roots. The cumulative volume of water conducted by the root systems during a 4-day period ranged from 36.7 mL in the control treatments to 8.1 mL in roots systems drenched with 1000 mg·L−1 ABA, a reduction of 78%. When the conductance study was repeated using decapitated roots and excised stems, root water flux was again reduced by ABA, but water flux through internodal stem sections did not show an ABA effect. Results suggest that ABA-induced wilting is caused by a reduction in root conductance and we hypothesize that ABA affects aquaporins in the roots, limiting water uptake.
Manuel G. Astacio and Marc W. van Iersel
It is common for plants in the retail market to receive inadequate water and lose aesthetic value within a short period of time. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally produced in response to drought conditions and reduces transpiration (E) by closing the stomata. Thus, ABA may lengthen shelf life of retail plants by reducing water loss. Two studies were conducted to look at effects of ABA on plant water use and shelf life over a 13-day period and short-term effects of ABA on leaf physiology. The objective of the short-term study was to determine how quickly 100-mL drenches of 250 mg·L−1 ABA solution affect leaf gas exchange of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Supersweet 100’). ABA drenches reduced stomatal conductance (g S), E, and photosynthetic rate (Pn) within 60 min. After 2 h, E, g s, and Pn were reduced by 66%, 72%, and 55% respectively, compared with the control plants. In the13-day study, ABA was applied to tomatoes as a 100-mL drench at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg·L−1 and ABA effects on water use and time to wilting were quantified. Half of the plants were not watered after ABA application, whereas the other plants were watered as needed. In general, higher ABA concentrations resulted in less water use by both well-watered and unwatered plants. ABA delayed wilting of unwatered plants by 2 to 8 days (dependent on the dose) as compared with control plants. In well-watered plants, ABA reduced daily evapotranspiration (ET) for 5 days, after which there were no further ABA effects. Negative side effects of the ABA application were rate-dependent chlorosis of the lower leaves followed by leaf abscission. These studies demonstrate that ABA drenches rapidly close stomata, limit transpirational water loss, and can extend the shelf life of retail plants by up to 8 days, which exemplifies its potential as a commercially applied plant growth regulator.
Andrew B. Ogden and Marc W. van Iersel
Growers interested in producing early, high-quality, southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) in high tunnels face a lack of information regarding appropriate cultural methods. We sought to elucidate the optimal date to close high tunnels to hasten vegetative and reproductive growth of organic southern highbush blueberry cultivars Emerald and Jewel grown in Georgia. The three dates selected to close the high tunnels were 15 Dec., 2 Jan., and 16 Jan. High tunnels raised soil and daytime air temperatures during winter months, but the tunnels did not retain heat at night and did not provide freeze protection without the use of propane heaters. The high tunnel microclimate advanced both vegetative and reproductive growth compared with outdoor plants. Averaged over the 2-year study, the 15 Dec. tunnel closure advanced flower initiation by 38 days for ‘Emerald’ and 39 days for ‘Jewel’ compared with outdoor control plants. Synchronization of flowering of the two cultivars was poor in 2007 when ‘Emerald’ flowered much earlier than ‘Jewel’ and much better in 2008. In 2007, flower and fruit development of ‘Jewel’ were faster than that of ‘Emerald’ with Jewel going from the appearance of individual flowers to ripe fruit in 80 days as compared with 105 days for ‘Emerald’. Total yield was strongly correlated with fruit set (r = 0.94). ‘Emerald’ fruit contained higher concentrations of soluble solids and anthocyanins than ‘Jewel’ fruit, and anthocyanin concentrations increased throughout the harvest period. No fruit matured in 2008 as a result of freeze damage. The biggest obstacle for high tunnel production of southern highbush blueberries appears to be preventing freeze damage and assuring pollination. Cost-effective freeze protection and ways to promote good fruit set will be critical to successful production of early southern highbush blueberries in high tunnels.
Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel
Supplemental lighting can improve the growth of greenhouse crops, but the electricity required for supplemental lighting can be a significant expense for greenhouse growers. Lighting control strategies that use the dimmability of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential to decrease this cost. In our experiments, we tested the hypothesis that providing ‘Little Gem’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants with the same daily amount of light, spread out over a longer photoperiod and at lower average photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs), would improve growth because light is used more efficiently to drive photosynthesis at lower PPFDs. We conducted two greenhouse experiments wherein supplemental light was provided to reach a minimum daily light integral (DLI) of 17 mol·m−2·d−1 with a 12, 15, 18, or 21-hour photoperiod using adaptive lighting control of LED lights. As the photoperiod for supplemental lighting was increased and supplemental light was provided at lower average PPFDs, plant dry weight increased. Conversion efficiency, the estimated increase in dry weight per Joule expended on supplemental lighting, increased as the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 21 hours. Leaf size and chlorophyll content index increased with longer photoperiods. The number of plants with symptoms of tipburn, including apical and marginal necrosis, also increased as the photoperiod was extended. These results demonstrate that adaptive lighting control can be used to increase the growth of ‘Little Gem’ lettuce and the energy use efficiency of supplemental lighting by providing supplemental light at relatively low PPFDs.
Marc W. van Iersel, Matthew Chappell and John D. Lea-Cox
The use of sensors can provide quantitative information to help guide and automate the decision-making process for irrigation. This article provides an overview of the most common sensors that can be used for this purpose. Such sensors include those that are commonly used for weather stations as well as sensors to monitor the water status of the soil or substrate, and sensors that can be used to monitor and troubleshoot irrigation systems. Although collecting data with sensors is relatively easy, data are only useful if the sensors are used correctly and the limitations of sensors are understood. Optimizing the value of the collected data requires selecting the best sensor(s) for a particular purpose, determining the optimal number of sensors to be deployed, and assuring that collected data are as accurate and precise as possible. We describe general sensing principles and how these principles can be applied to a variety of sensors. Based on our experience, proper use of sensors can result in large increases in irrigation efficiency and improve the profitability of ornamental production in greenhouses and nurseries.
William D. Wheeler, Paul Thomas, Marc van Iersel and Matthew Chappell
A soil moisture sensor-based automated irrigation system was trialed in a commercial floriculture greenhouse to determine what benefits these types of systems may offer to herbaceous ornamental producers. Water use, crop quality and growth, and grower behavior toward adoption of the new technology were monitored, when all decision making related to system operation was carried out by the grower. Two cultivars of poinsettia (Euphorbia ×pulcherrima) and three cultivars of geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum) were produced in side-by-side trials over the course of 2 years while comparing grower-controlled, sensor-based automated irrigation with traditional grower-managed (timer-based) irrigation. Plant quality was equivalent between irrigation treatments across all five trials. Differences in plant size were noted in four of the five trials between irrigation treatments, but in all instances these differences were not judged by the commercial grower to impact marketability of the crop. No reductions in irrigation water use were noted with the sensor-based irrigation system, which differed from previous research using this technology in ornamental production. Over the course of 2 years, the number of plants produced using sensor-based irrigation control was scaled up, indicating increasing confidence in, and adoption of, the technology. Managers at the facility found that sensor-based irrigation facilitated reallocation of labor from irrigation management, which was especially valuable during peak production and shipping periods. The payback period calculated from labor savings would be roughly 1.5 years if the sensor-based irrigation system was implemented throughout the facility.
Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel and Anish Malladi
Drought stress reduces stem elongation and cell expansion. Since gibberellins (GAs) play an important role in controlling cell elongation, the objective of this study was to determine if the reduction in growth under drought stress is associated with altered GA metabolism or signaling. We exposed ‘Moneymaker’ tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to drought stress to observe the effects on growth. Irrigation was automated using a data logger, which maintained volumetric water contents (VWC) of 0.35 and 0.15 m3·m−3 for well-watered and drought-stressed conditions, respectively. To further investigate the effect of GAs on elongation, paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, was applied to reduce endogenous GA production. Drought stress and PAC treatment reduced plant height. Internode length, cell size, and shoot dry weight displayed an interaction between the VWC and PAC treatments. The transcript levels of SlGA20ox1, -2, -3, and -4, SlGA3ox2, and SlGA2ox2, -4, and -5, corresponding to enzymes in GA metabolism, and LeEXP1, and -2, encoding expansin enzymes related to cell wall loosening necessary for cell expansion, were analyzed. Downregulation of transcript accumulation due to drought stress was observed for SlGA20ox4, SlGA2ox5, and LeEXP1, but not for any of the other genes. PAC increased expression of SlGA20ox-3, and SlGA3ox2, potentially through feedback regulation. These findings suggest that drought stress effects on elongation are at least partly mediated by altered GA metabolism.
Amanda Bayer, John Ruter and Marc W. van Iersel
Sustainable use of water resources is of increasing importance in container plant production as a result of decreasing water availability and an increasing number of laws and regulations regarding nursery runoff. Soil moisture sensor-controlled, automated irrigation can be used to irrigate when substrate volumetric water content (θ) drops below a threshold, improving irrigation efficiency by applying water only as needed. We compared growth of two Gardenia jasminoides cultivars, slow-growing and challenging ‘Radicans’ and easier, fast-growing ‘August Beauty’, at various θ thresholds. Our objective was to determine how irrigation can be applied more efficiently without negatively affecting plant quality, allowing for cultivar-specific guidelines. Soil moisture sensor-controlled, automated irrigation was used to maintain θ thresholds of 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, or 0.50 m3·m−3. Growth of both cultivars was related to θ threshold, and patterns of growth were similar in both Watkinsville and Tifton, GA. High mortality was observed at the 0.20-m3·m−3 threshold with poor root establishment resulting from the low irrigation volume. Height, width, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and leaf size were greater for the 0.40 and 0.50 m3·m−3 than the 0.20 and 0.30-m3·m−3 θ thresholds. Irrigation volume increased with increasing θ thresholds for both cultivars. For ‘August Beauty’, cumulative irrigation volume ranged from 0.96 to 63.21 L/plant in Tifton and 1.89 to 87.9 L/plant in Watkinsville. For ‘Radicans’, cumulative irrigation volume ranged from 1.32 to 126 L/plant in Tifton and from 1.38 to 261 L/plant in Watkinsville. There was a large irrigation volume difference between the 0.40 and 0.50-m3·m−3 θ thresholds with little additional growth, suggesting that the additional irrigation applied led to overirrigation and leaching. Bud and flower number of ‘Radicans’ were greatest for the 0.40-m3·m−3 θ threshold, indicating that overirrigation can reduce flowering. The results of this study show that growth of the different G. jasminoides cultivars responded similarly to θ threshold at both locations. Similarities in growth and differences in irrigation volume at the 0.40 and 0.50-m3·m−3 θ thresholds show that more efficient irrigation can be used without negatively impacting growth.