Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 71 items for

  • Author or Editor: John Ruter x
Clear All Modify Search

American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) is a deciduous shrub native to the southeast United States and is grown primarily for its metallic-purple fruit that develop in the fall. There are also pink- and white-fruiting and variegated forms but these traits are rare in nature and there is no information available regarding their inheritance. Also, there is confusion regarding self-compatibility and the presence of apomixis in Callicarpa L. Crosses were performed to investigate the genetics of fruit color, self-compatibility, and apomixis in american beautyberry. Test crosses between C. americana (CA) and C. americana ‘Lactea’ (CAL) suggested that white fruit is recessive to purple. White fruit appears to be controlled by a single recessive gene for which we propose the name white fruit and the gene symbol wft. Although there were only a limited number of progeny grown, crosses between CA and ‘Welch’s Pink’ suggest that purple is dominant to pink. Test crosses between CAL and ‘Welch’s Pink’ are needed to draw conclusions; however, we propose that purple, pink, and white fruit are controlled by an allelic series for which we suggest the gene symbols Wft > wft p > wft. Segregation ratios suggested that all progeny in the study developed through sexual hybridization. All genotypes used in the current study were self-compatible.

Free access

Seasonal, stem and leaf cold hardiness levels of male and female plants of Ilex purpurea Hassk. and Ilex rotunda var. microcarpa (Lindl. ex Paxton) were determined over two winter seasons. The samples for the cold hardiness studies were taken from established plants growing at the Univ. of Georgia Bamboo Farm and Coastal Gardens in Savannah. Each month, 40 stem cuttings (4 to 5 inches long) were sent by overnight mail for evaluation. The plants were prepared for laboratory freezing exposure tests within 2 h of receiving. The samples were visually evaluated after freezing exposure to estimate their cold hardiness. In general, Ilex purpurea was more cold-hardy than I. rotunda var. microcarpa over both seasons tested, except in midwinter (Jan. 1998 and Feb. 1999) where I. rotunda var. microcarpa was more cold-hardy than I. purpurea. Ilex purpurea attained cold hardiness earlier in the fall and lost its hardiness later in the spring. In general, few consistent differences were observed between the cold hardiness of male and female plants within species.

Free access

The objective of this study was to determine differences in the bulk anthocyanin content of bark tissue of container-grown red maple (Acer rubrum L. and Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) at two Georgia locations with different environmental conditions. Rooted cuttings and tissue-cultured plantlets of eight cultivars were grown in either Blairsville or Tifton, Ga. [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Hardiness Zones 6b and 8a; American Horticultural Society (AHS) Heat Zones 5 and 8, respectively], from June 1995 until Dec. 1996. Bark tissue from twigs of trees grown in Blairsville was visually redder and contained more total anthocyanin than did that of trees grown in Tifton. Levels of total anthocyanins were higher (P = 0.0007) at Blairsville (0.087 mg·g-1, N = 48) than at Tifton (0.068 mg·g-1, N = 47). At both locations the levels were highest in `Landsburg' (`Firedance'™), followed by `Franksred' (`Red Sunset'™) and `October Glory'. This is the first report to quantify anthocyanin differences in bark tissue of container-grown trees. Cooler nights in Blairsville might have contributed to increased coloration by reducing respiratory losses, thus leaving more carbohydrates available for pigment production.

Free access

Temperature sensitivity of net photosynthesis (PSN), dark respiration, and chlorophyll fluorescence was evaluated among three taxa of hollies including I. aquifolium, I. cornuta, and I. rugosa. Variations in foliar heat tolerance among these species were expressed as differential temperature responses for PSN. Temperature optima for PSN was 22.0, 26.3 and 27.9 umol·m–2·s–1 for I. rugosa, I. cornuta, and I. aquifolium, respectively. Differences in temperature optima for PSN and thermotolerance of PSN appeared to result from a combination of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations. At 40°C, potential photosynthetic capacity, measured under saturating CO2, was 4.1, 9.4, and 14.8 μmol·m–2·s–1 for I. rugosa, I. aquifolium, and I. cornuta, respectively. Based on these results, I. rugosa was identified as the most heat-sensitive species followed by I. aquifolium then I. cornuta. Comparative tolerance to root-zone inundation was evaluated among 14 holly taxa. Following 8 weeks of flooding, four of the taxa: I. cornuta `Burfordii', I. × `Nellie R. Stevens', I. cassine, and I. × attenuata `Foster's #2' performed remarkably well during and after flooding with photosynthetic rates > 40% of the controls, root ratings >75% of the controls, <5% of the foliage showing deterioration, and 100% survival. Conversely, I. crenata `Convexa', Ilex × meserveae `Blue Princess', I. rugosa and I. aquifolium `Sparkler' did not tolerate flooding well as indicated by severely depressed photosynthetic rates, deterioration of foliage and roots, and decreased survival. The remaining taxa were intermediate.0

Free access

Stem cuttings of golden euonymus (Euonymus japonicus `Aureo-marginatus'), shore juniper (Juniperus conferta `Blue Pacific'), white indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica `Alba'), and `Red Cascade' miniature rose (Rosa `Red Cascade') were successfully rooted in plugs of a stabilized organic substrate that had been soaked in aqueous solutions of the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) at 0 to 75 mg·L–1 before inserting the cuttings. Cuttings were rooted under intermittent mist in polyethylene-covered greenhouses with rooting periods appropriate for each species. Rooting percentages showed some increase with increasing auxin concentration with juniper cuttings, but were similar among treatments for the other three species. Number of roots per rooted cutting increased with increasing auxin concentration with cuttings of juniper, Indian hawthorn, and rose, and was greatest using around 60 mg·L-1 K-IBA for cuttings of juniper and Indian hawthorn and 30 to 45 mg·L-1 K-IBA for cuttings of rose.

Free access

This experiment compared the effect of fall fertilization on freeze hardiness of evergreen vs. deciduous azaleas (Rhododendron). Beginning in Spring 2003, a 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted in Athens, Ga., on container plants grown outdoors under nursery conditions involving two taxa (R. canescens and R. ×satsuki `Wakaebisu') and three fall fertigation regimes (Aug.–Sept., 75 mg·L-1 of N; Aug.–Nov., 75 mg·L-1 of N; and Aug.–Nov., 125 mg·L-1 of N). On 15 Nov. and 17 Dec. 2003 and 16 Jan., 18 Feb., and 19 Mar. 2004, plant stem tissue was harvested and exposed to 10 progressively lower temperature intervals between –3 °C and –30 °C under laboratory conditions in order to estimate azalea freeze hardiness. Freeze hardiness was affected by fertilizer and taxa treatments, but there were no significant interaction effects in this study. The timing of freeze hardening was not significantly different among the two species over time, and the fall fertilizer treatments did not affect the timing of hardening. Compared to the industry standard (75 mg·L-1 of N, Aug.–Sept.), R. canescens that received extended fertilization at the high rate (125 mg·L-1 of N, Aug.–Nov.) was less freeze hardy in November, December, and January, and R. ×satsuki was less freeze hardy in December. However, when compared to the industry standard, the low rate of extended fertilization (75 mg·L-1 of N, Aug.–Nov.) did not affect azalea freeze hardiness.

Free access

Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana and Tibouchina fothergillae ×pilosa are members of the Melastomataceae family with high ornamental potential. The growth habits of these species are not ideal for nursery production or shipping. D. rotundifolia grows rapidly and needs frequent pruning. T. fothergillae ×pilosa has an open growth habit and could benefit from a more compact form. The effect of the plant growth regulator (PGR) paclobutrazol on D. rotundifolia and T. fothergillae ×pilosa was assessed to determine whether it could produce plants with a more compact growth habit. Paclobutrazol was applied as a drench and a spray. Drench application was more effective in reducing the growth of both species. Spray application was effective in reducing the growth of D. rotundifolia but was not effective on T. fothergillae ×pilosa. Neither drench nor spray application delayed or reduced flowering in D. rotundifolia. T. fothergillae ×pilosa did not flower during the study. For both D. rotundifolia and T. fothergillae ×pilosa, neither drench nor spray application had an effect on root dry weight. Low-to-medium dosages were effective at controlling plant growth in D. rotundifolia and T. fothergillae ×pilosa without adverse effects on plants. Drench treatments have more persistent effects on plant growth than spray treatments.

Free access

Four species of Dissotis and three species of Tibouchina, two genera of the Melastomataceae family, were crossed in an attempt to create interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Intergeneric crosses set seed at a rate of 18.1% and interspecific crosses had a 32.3% rate of seed set. Germination was extremely poor, with only four crosses having germinated seed. Crosses produced 31 seedlings. Three of the seedlings were from intergeneric crosses between Dissotis canescens and Tibouchina lepidota. Interspecific crosses produced 25 seedlings from crosses between Dissotis princeps and Dissotis rotundifolia and three seedlings from crosses between D. canescens and D. princeps. The prognosis for conventional breeding for species in Dissotis and Tibouchina is poor due to low seed set, poor germination, and slow growth of progeny.

Free access

Interspecific and intergeneric crosses were performed between species in the genera Baptisia and Thermopsis with the goal of creating hybrids with the best qualities of both parents. Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. was used as both the male and female parent in intergeneric crosses. Thermopsis chinensis Benth. ex S. Moore, T. lupinoides (L.) Link, and T. villosa Fernald & B.G. Schub. were used as male and female parents in both interspecific and intergeneric crosses. Pollen was collected from B. alba (L.) Vent., B. bracteata Muhl. ex Elliott, and B. lanceolata (Walt.) Ell. and used to make interspecific and intergeneric crosses. Putative hybrids were obtained from both interspecific and intergeneric crosses. Interspecific crosses produced a higher percentage of pollinations resulting in seed set and the number of seeds per pollination than intergeneric crosses. Morphological differences between parent species and progeny were evident in putative hybrids resulting from intergeneric crosses between T. villosa and B. australis and T. villosa and B. alba. Most putative hybrids bloomed during the second year after germination. Because seedlings could be obtained from both interspecific and intergeneric crosses, hybrids within and between the genera Baptisia and Thermopsis are feasible. The Fabaceae family contains 670–750 genera and 18,000–19,000 species. Baptisia (commonly called false or wild indigo) and Thermopsis (commonly named false lupine) of the Fabaceae belong to the tribe Thermopsidae, which comprises 46 species in six genera. All species in Thermopsis and Baptisia are herbaceous; they are the only two genera in Thermopsidae that do not have woody species. Thermopsis contains 23 species and has a wide-spread distribution with species endemic to Asia and much of temperate North America. Although Thermopsis is considered to have originated in central Asia, T. chinensis Benth. ex S. Moore and T. fabacea (Pallas) Candole are thought to have originated in North America and migrated over the Bering Land Strait to Asia. Three Thermopsis species, T. fraxinifolia Nutt. ex M.A. Curtis, T. mollis (Michx.) M.A. Curtis ex A. Gray, and T. villosa Fernald & B.G. Schub., are native to the southeastern United States. Baptisia contains 15–17 species that are endemic to the southeastern and midwestern United States.

Free access