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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Bielinski M. Santos and Kelly T. Morgan

Earlier fall planting dates for strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in west-central Florida tend to promote earlier onset of flowering and fruiting. However, warm air temperatures (>28 °C) can result in excessive growth and runner production. Sprinkler irrigation is a common practice to reduce air temperature in the first 10 to15 days after transplanting, requiring large volumes of irrigation water. An alternative to sprinkler irrigation is the application of crop protectants such as kaolin clay after transplanting. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal planting dates and to assess the most appropriate establishment practices for strawberry bare-root transplants in Florida. Four establishment practices—10 days of sprinkler irrigation (DSI), 10 DSI + kaolin clay, 7 DSI, and 7 DSI + kaolin clay were evaluated for ‘Florida Radiance’ and Sweet Sensation® ‘Florida127’ transplanted in mid September, late September, and early October in consecutive seasons. For ‘Florida127’, September planting dates increased early yield compared with early-October traditional planting dates, with no difference in total yield. Seven DSI followed by the foliar application of kaolin clay at day 8 was also found to increase early yield compared with 10 DSI for strawberry establishment, with annual water savings of 108.7 mm.

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James P. Gilreath, Timothy N. Motis, Bielinski M. Santos, Joseph W. Noling, Salvadore J. Locascio and Daniel O. Chellemi

Field studies were conducted during four consecutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) -cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the longterm residual effects of tomato methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato fields: a) nontreated control; b) MBr + chloropicrin (Pic) (67:33 by weight) at a rate of 350 lb/acre; c) tank-mixed pebulate + napropamide at 4 and 2 lb/acre, respectively, followed by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) + Pic (83:17 by volume) at 40 gal/acre; and d) napropamide at 2 lb/acre followed by soil solarization for 7 to 8 weeks. Each of the following seasons, cucumber was planted in the same tomato plots without removing mulch films. For nutsedge [purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus)] densities, napropamide followed by solarization plots had equal control (≤15 plants/m2) as MBr + Pic during all four cropping seasons. However, nematode control with solarization was inconsistent. Marketable yield data proved that fumigation in tomato fields with either MBr + Pic or pebulate + napropamide followed by 1,3-D + Pic had a long-term effect on double-cropped cucumber.

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Bielinski M. Santos, José Manuel López-Aranda, James P. Gilreath, Luis Miranda, Carmen Soria and Juan J. Medina

Tunnel and open field trials were conducted in two locations in Huelva, Spain, and one in Florida to determine the effect of selected methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives on strawberry yield. In Spain, the tunnel treatments were: a) nontreated control, b) MBr + chloropicrin (Pic) 50:50 at a rate of 400 kg·ha–1; c) dazomet at 400 kg·ha–1, d) 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) + Pic 65:35 at 300 kg·ha–1; e) Pic at 300 kg/ha; f) dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) + Pic 50:50 at 250 + 250 kg·ha–1; and f) propylene oxide at 550 kg·ha–1. All treatments were covered with virtually impermeable film (VIF), except the nontreated control, which was covered with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch. Dazomet was rototilled 10 cm deep, whereas the other fumigants were injected with four chisels per bed. In Florida, the open-field treatments were a) nontreated control, b) MBr + Pic 67:33 at a rate of 400 kg/ha with LDPE; c) MBr + Pic 67:33 at 310 kg·ha–1 with VIF; d) 1,3-D + Pic 65:35 at 300 kg·ha–1 with VIF; e) methyl iodide (MI) + Pic 50:50 at 230 kg·ha–1 with VIF; f) Pic at 300 kg·ha–1 with VIF; g) DMDS + Pic 50:50 at 250 + 250 kg·ha–1 with VIF; and g) propylene oxide at 500 kg·ha–1 with VIF. The fumigants were applied with three chisels per bed. In Spain, the results showed that 1,3-D + Pic, DMDS + Pic, and Pic consistently had similar marketable yields as MBr + Pic. Similar results were found in Florida, with the exception of propylene oxide, which also had equal marketable fruit weight as MBr + Pic.

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Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Bielinski M. Santos, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto and Charles A. Sims

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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, Joseph W. Noling, Salvadore J. Locascio, Donald W. Dickson, Erin N. Rosskopf and Steven M. Olson

Field studies were conducted in three Florida locations (Bradenton, Gainesville, and Quincy) during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 to: 1) compare the performance of two transplant systems under diverse MBr alternative programs in `Chandler' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), and 2) determine the efficacy of these treatments on soilborne pest control in strawberry. Fumigant treatments were: 1) nonfumigated control, 2) methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic) at a rate of 350 lb/acre, 3) Pic at 300 lb/acre and napropamide at 4 lb/acre, 4) 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) plus Pic at 35 gal/acre and napropamide at 4 lb/acre, 5) metam sodium (MNa) at 60 gal/acre and napropamide at 4 lb/acre, and 6) MNa followed by 1,3-D at 60 and 12 gal/acre and napropamide at 4 lb/acre, respectively. Strawberry transplants were either bare-root or containerized plugs. There were no significant fumigant by transplant type interactions for strawberry plant vigor and root weight per plant, whereas ring nematode (Criconema spp.) and nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) populations, and total marketable fruit weight were only infl uenced by fumigant application. The nonfumigated plots had the lowest strawberry plant vigor and root weight per plant in all three locations. In most cases, plant vigor and root biomass per plant increased as a response to any fumigant application. With regard to the transplant type, bare-root transplants had similar plant vigor as plugs in two of the three locations. Fumigation improved nutsedge and ring nematode control. All fumigants had higher early and total marketable yield than the nonfumigated control, whereas transplant type had no effect on total fruit weight.

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José M. López-Aranda, Luis Miranda, Juan J. Medina, Carmen Soria, Berta de los Santos, Fernando Romero, Rosa M. Pérez-Jiménez, Miguel Talavera, Steve A. Fennimore and Bielinski M. Santos

Field trials were conducted in two locations in Spain to determine the effect of methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives on soilborne diseases and nematodes, and strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) yields under high-tunnel conditions. Fumigant treatments were applied to the same plots each year. Treatments were MBr + chloropicrin (Pic) (50:50, v/v) at a rate of 400 kg·ha−1; 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) + Pic (65:35, v/v) at 300 kg·ha−1; Pic at 300 kg·ha−1; dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) + Pic (50:50, v/v) at 500 kg·ha−1; propylene oxide at 550 kg·ha−1; dazomet at 400 kg·ha−1; and calcium cyanamide (Ca-cyanamide) at 700 kg·ha−1. A nontreated control was also included. Fumigation with MBr + Pic, 1,3-D + Pic, Pic, and DMDS + Pic consistently improved early and total marketable strawberry yields in both locations. This response was caused by successful soilborne fungus and nematode control, improving strawberry growth and development, which resulted in increased plant canopy diameters and higher strawberry early and total yield.