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  • Author or Editor: Yin-Tung Wang x
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Live oak trees raised from acorns are highly non-uniform and many produce numerous undesirable rhizomic shoots. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the growth rates between (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees from seed and cutting in four production systems and 2) determine if trees from cuttings produce rhizomic shoots. Rhizomic shoot cuttings 25–30 cm long were taken from a single tree about 50 years old in late Aug. 1990, rooted, and planted in 2.6-L pots after 2 months. During the same week, acorns were collected from the same tree and germinated. All trees were planted into 13-L pots in July 1991 and then to a field in July 1992. Trees from both sources were planted either directly in the ground, in 36.6- or 45.7-cm-diameter polypropylene fabric bags buried in the ground, or in 13-L pots on the ground. Trunk circumference 10 cm above the soil line was roughly measured yearly between 1992 and 1999. Initially, trees from cuttings grew slightly slower than seedlings, having a smaller trunk circumference, diameter, and cross-sectional area. These differences diminished and all trees had similar circumferences after 1996. In 1992, trees in 36.6-cm bags and pots had more growth than trees in the ground. In 1993, trees in pots had better growth than those in the ground. After 1993, all trees had similar circumferences until the end of this study, probably due to roots extending beyond the bags and pots into the surrounding soil. About one-third of the seedling trees produced rhizomic shoots, whereas none of the trees from cuttings did. The rhizomic shoots of trees in pots were contained within the pot and none from the ground. Another significance of this research is that the cloned trees from cuttings were extremely uniform in growth habit and form.

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A study was initiated to determine the effect of GA3 as a counter measure to restore the growth of over-retarded poinsettia. Euphorbia pulcherrima `Sonora Red' plants were treated once foliarly with paclobutrazol at 40 or 80 mg·L-1 one week following pinching. Four weeks later, plants receiving the 80 mg·L-1 rate were treated once foliarly with GA3 at 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40 mg·L-1. The effect of GA3 was visible within 3 days of application. GA3 between 10 and 40 mg·L-1 caused long internodes, excessive stem elongation, as well as small leaves and bracts, resulting in unmarketable plants. Plants receiving 10 mg·L-1 GA3 were nearly twice the height of the over-retarded plants (31 vs. 17 cm), with increasingly taller plants at higher concentrations, up to 30 mg·L-1. In a second experiment, single-stemed plants were treated with one foliar spray of 50 or 150 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol two weeks following the beginning of short days. After another 3 weeks, the overdosed plants were then foliarly treated once with 0, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg·L-1 GA3. GA3 at all rates promoted stem elongation and resulted in large bracts and much increased inflorescence diameter. The 15 mg·L-1 GA3 rate resulted in undesirable long internodes on the upper stem. Plants that received 3, 5, or 10 mg·L-1 GA3 were of excellent quality, with their heights and inflorescence sizes similar to those of plants receiving 50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol (26 cm). Parallel experiments using `Burgundy Cortez' had similar results.

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Bare-root seedling plants of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. arnabilis (L.) Blume × P. Mount Kaala `Elegance'] were grown in five potting media under three fertility levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g·liter-1) from a 20N-8.6P-16.6K soluble fertilizer applied at every irrigation. The five media included 1) 1 perlite:1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal (by volume); 2)2 perlite:2 composted pine bark:1 vermiculite; 3) composted pine bark; 4) 3 perlite:3 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal; and 5) 1 perlite:1 rockwool. During the first flowering season, plants in the 1 perlite: 1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal medium had slightly fewer but larger flowers and thicker stalks (section of the inflorescence between the base and oldest flower) than those in the 1 perlite:1 rockwool medium. Medium had no effect on stalk length. Two media (3 perlite: 3 Metro Mix 250: 1 charcoal and 1 perlite: 1 rockwool) resulted in root systems that were inferior to those in the others. Fertilizer level had no effect on bloom date or flower size. Regardless of medium, increasing the fertility from 0.25 to 1.0 g·liter-1 increased flower count, stalk diameter and length, and leaf production following flowering. During the second flowering season, media had limited effect on plant performance. Increased fertility promoted earlier inflorescence emergence and blooming. Higher fertilizer rates also caused a linear increase in the number of flowers and inflorescences per plant, and in stalk diameter, total leaf count, and leaf size.

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Bare-root, mature, hybrid Phalaenopsis seedlings were dipped in one of three growth retardant solutions for 5 seconds or sprayed with a growth retardant 4 weeks following planting during inflorescence elongation. Dipping the entire plant in daminozide (2500, 5000, or 7500 mg·liter-1) before planting delayed flowering by 5-13 days, whereas foliar applications had no effect. Paclobutrazol (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1) dips did not affect the bloom date but effectively restricted inflorescence growth below the first flower (stalk). Increasing concentrations produced progressively less growth. Foliarly applied retardant treatments were less effective than dipping. Flower size, flower count, and stalk thickness were unaffected by treatments. Dipping in high concentrations of paclobutrazol (200 or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (100 or 200 mg·liter-1) caused plants to produce small, thick leaves. During the second bloom season, inflorescence emergence and bloom date were progressively delayed by increasing concentrations of paclobutrazol and uniconazole. Neither retardant affected flower count or size. Foliarly applied daminozide increased stalk length. In another experiment, foliar paclobutrazol treatment restricted stalk growth more effectively when sprayed before inflorescence emergence. Its effect progressively decreased when treatment was delayed. Paclobutrazol concentrations from 125 to 500 mg·liter-1 were equally effective in limiting stalk elongation when applied to the foliage. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1- (p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole); (2 RS, 3 RS) -1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1 H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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Vegetatively propagated Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala `TSC 22' plants 10 cm in leaf spread were potted in a medium that consisted of either 100% fine grade Douglas fir bark or a mixture of 70% fir bark and 30% sphagnum peat. Plants were fertigated at each irrigation with 10N-13.1P-16.6K (10-30-20), 20N-2.2P-15.8K (20-5-19), 20N-8.6P-16.6K (20-20-20), or a 2N-0.4P-1.7K (2-1-2) liquid fertilizer at a common N rate of 200 mg•L-1. After 1 year in a greenhouse, plants grown in the bark/peat medium produced more leaves and had heavier fresh weights and larger total leaf areas than those in 100% bark. In the bark medium, the 20N-2.2P-15.8K fertilizer resulted in best plants, despite its low P concentration (22 mg•L-1). When grown in bark/peat, the two fertilizers (20N-2.2P-15.8K and 20N-8.6P-16.6K) containing urea as part of their N source (10% and 52%, respectively) resulted in plants with 40% to 50% heavier shoot fresh weight and 40% larger leaf area than the other fertilizers. With any given fertilizer, plants had similar root weights in both media. Media and fertilizers had limited or no effect on the concentrations of minerals in the second mature acropital leaves except P, the concentration of which nearly doubled in leaves of plants grown in 100% bark. Water extracts from the bark/peat medium had lower pH, higher EC, and elevated levels of NH4-N, Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, B, and Al than those from 100% bark. Exacts from the bark medium did not have detectable levels of NO3-N, whereas extracts from the bark/peat medium all had similar levels of NO3-N, regardless of which fertilizer was applied.

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Abstract

To simulate the developmental sequence of the Easter lily flower (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. ‘Nellie White’), flower buds from 4.5 cm to 16 cm (anthesis) were cut from field-grown plants on a single date. Fresh weight increased with bud length and was highest at anthesis, whereas dry matter reached a maximum of 1.6 g when buds were 14 cm long. The percentage of dry matter declined from 16% in the smallest bud to only 9% at anthesis. Respiration rates, both per bud and per unit dry weight, increased with bud size, reaching peak values of 3.0 mg CO2 · bud-1 · hr-1 and 1.8 mg CO2 · g-1 dry wt · hr -1 at anthesis before declining to a markedly lower rate. From these data, the total dry matter needs of flowers on field-grown plants were estimated.

Open Access

Abstract

Eight-month-old ‘Jane Cowl’ hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) in 2.8-liter pots received 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg of uniconazole/pot as a soil drench. Plants were pruned 35 days after treatment and then grown for an additional 65 days. Plant height, number of leaves and flower buds per shoot, shoot length, stem diameter, and leaf size decreased with increasing rates of uniconazole. Flower number was greater at the two low rates; however, days to first bloom and leaf dark respiration rate were unaffected. Leaf chlorophyll concentration increased with increasing rates of uniconazole. Development of secondary xylem tissue, transverse diameter of vessels, and number and size of phloem fibers were suppressed by uniconazole, resulting in a cascading growth habit. Plants grown from cuttings taken from plants 35 days after treatment were shorter, with fewer lateral shoots and total leaves than cuttings from untreated plants. Uniconazole had no effect on growth of shoot tip cuttings taken from the new lateral shoots of treated plants 110 days after pruning. Soil drenches of uniconazole at 0.025 to 0.2 mg/pot to young plants in 1.5-liter pots resulted in shorter plants, delayed flowering, and fewer flowers with smaller diameter and shorter pedicels. Results from foliar application of uniconazole at 0.05 to 0.2 mg/plant (10 to 40 mg·liter−1) were similar to the soil drench, except that the reduction in shoot growth was less at low rates than with drench application. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).

Open Access

Abstract

Whole shoots of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Nellie White) were exposed to 14CO2 at 25, 37, and 51 days after full bloom of the commercial crop. Seven days after each exposure, 20% of the total recovered 14C remained in the shoot, which included stem roots, 10-25% in stem bulblets, 11-20% in mother scales, and 34-44% in daughter scales. Sink activity increased sharply from the outer mother scales to the inner daughter scales. The fraction of total 14C in the main bulb decreased, while that in the stem bulblets increased at successive exposures. Another group of plants was labeled repeatedly by dosing with 14CO2 on the three previous occasions and, also, at 65 days after full bloom. Bulbs were harvested 7 days after the final exposure, stored at 18°C for 14 weeks, and then replanted, At bulb digging, 50%, 30%, and 20% of the total 14C recovered were in the main bulb, stem bulblets, and shoot, respectively. Mother scales lost dry weight and 14C during storage and were nearly depleted when flower buds were visible the next season. Specific 14C activity in the emerging flowering shoot was high but decreased dramatically as the leaf number rapidly increased. The shoot and new daughter scales were the principal recipients of mobilized scale reserves, although only 28% of the 14C lost from mother scales were recovered in other plant parts. A majority of the carbon originally in mother scales was likely lost in respiration between fall harvest and 3 weeks after anthesis the following year. The daughter bulb contained 64% of the 14C in the bulb at fall harvest, and lost very little 14C during regrowth the following year.

Open Access

Abstract

Buds or open flowers are often removed in the production of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) bulbs. To determine if time of flower removal affects bulb size or plant growth, flower buds of container-grown ‘Nellie White’ plants were removed when the length of the largest flower bud was 1.0 cm (early) or 3.5 cm (late). Net photosynthesis of the 5th (upper) and 25th (mid-shoot) leaves was monitored and plants were harvested 2 months after full bloom of intact controls. Early disbudding stopped pedicel growth, inhibited stem elongation, and reduced total leaf area 12%, but did not affect bulb weight. Stem elongation was inhibited less by late disbudding; leaf area and plant weight were unaffected. Both fresh and dry bulb weights of late disbudded plants increased by 15%. Early disbudding reduced the rate of net photosynthesis of leaf 5 (particularly during the 3 weeks following full bloom), whereas late disbudding had less effect. Treatments did not affect photosynthesis of leaf 25. Reduced stem growth under late disbudding, without a severe reduction in photosynthesis, may have increased the availability of assimilate for bulb growth. Early disbudding caused 81% of the daughter bulbs to sprout prematurely, compared to 27% for late disbudding and 9% for controls. In a field study, removing flower buds at 1.5 cm or 4.0 cm in length increased bulb fresh weight over intact controls by 12% and 30%, respectively. Disbudding did not increase sprouting of field-grown plants. Delaying removal until the first flower bud is 3.5–4.0 cm long reduces deleterious effects on shoot growth while significantly improving bulb size.

Open Access

Abstract

Ponytail palms (Beaucarnea recurvata L.) were grown in three media having similar water holding capacities but different porosities, under 70%, 50%, or 27% full sunlight and fertilized with each irrigation or once every three irrigations. Plants grown in media with lower porosities grew more than plants in a peat-lite medium but required more frequent irrigation. Plants grew less under 27% full sun than at the two higher light levels. Frequent fertilization did not increase plant size but decreased pH and increased electrical conductivity of the growth medium leachate substantially. Plant acclimatization increased with decreasing production light intensity and noncapillary porosity of the medium.

Open Access