You are looking at 41 - 50 of 67 items for
- Author or Editor: Yin-Tung Wang x
Research was conducted to investigate the interaction of water-soluble fertilizer and medium composition on vegetative growth and the concentration of mineral nutrients in media and in leaves of a hybrid moth orchid (Phalaenopsis Blume.). The vegetatively propagated `TSC 22' clone of the hybrid Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala plants 15 cm in leaf spread were potted in a medium consisting of either 100% fine grade douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] bark or a mixture of 7 fir bark: 3 sphagnum peat (by volume). Plants were fertigated at each irrigation with a soluble 10N-13.1P-16.6K, 20N-2.2P-15.8K, or 20N-8.6P-16.6K fertilizer, or a 2N-0.4P-1.7K liquid fertilizer at a common N rate of 200 mg·L-1. After 1 year in a greenhouse, plants grown in the bark-peat medium produced more leaves, greater fresh weights (FW), and larger total leaf areas than those in 100% bark. In the bark medium, the 20N-2.2P-15.8K fertilizer resulted in plants of the highest quality, despite its low P concentration (22 mg·L-1). When grown in bark-peat, the two fertilizers (20N-2.2P-15.8K and 20N-8.6P-16.6K) containing urea as part of their N source (10% and 52%, respectively) resulted in plants with 40% to 50% heavier shoot FW and 40% larger leaf area than the other fertilizers without urea. With any given fertilizer, plants had similar root FW in both media. Media and fertilizers had limited or no effect on the concentrations of mineral nutrients in the second mature acropetal leaves, except P, which nearly doubled in leaves of plants grown in 100% bark. High leaf Mg concentration was associated with low Ca. Water extracts from the bark-peat medium had lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and much higher levels of NH4-N, Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, B, and Al than those from 100% bark. Extracts from the bark medium did not have detectable levels of NO3-N, whereas extracts from the bark-peat medium all had similar levels of NH4-N, regardless of which fertilizer was applied. Levels of P and K were not different between the two media.
Presently, there are no standards for producing Phalaenopsis Blume (the moth orchids) as a flowering, potted crop. Determining optimal irradiance for in vitro and greenhouse production will help optimize growth and flowering. Four-month-old, aseptically propagated Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala seedlings with 1.0 cm leaf spread were transferred to a sterile agar medium in November 1995. They were placed under 10, 20, 40, or 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from cool-white fluorescent lamps. In June 1996, plants grown under 40 or 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 in vitro PPF had 38% greater fresh weight (FW), wider leaves, and more roots than those under the two lower PPF levels. Plants from each in vitro PPF were then transplanted and grown ex vitro in a greenhouse (GH) under high, medium, or low PPF, representing 12.0%, 5.4%, or 2.6% of full sunlight, respectively. Full sunlight at this location was 2300 and 1700 μmol·m-2·s-1 in August 1996 and January 1997, respectively. In November 1996 and June 1997, plants that had received 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 in vitro PPF and then grown under the high or medium GH PPF had the greatest FWs. Overall, plants under the high, medium, or low GH PPF had average FWs of 61, 36, or 17 g, respectively, in June 1997. By mid-September 1997, plants had increasingly larger leaves and higher concentrations of malic acid, sucrose, and starch as GH PPF increased. Leaf glucose and fructose concentrations remained constant as GH PPF increased; however, sucrose level doubled and malic acid concentration increased by nearly 50% from the low to high GH PPF. Each doubling in GH PPF more than doubled plant FW. Plants grown under the high, medium, or low GH PPF had 98%, 77%, or 2% flowering, respectively, in Spring 1998. Anthesis occurred 2 weeks earlier under the high GH PPF. Plants grown under the high GH PPF had twice as many flowers and larger flowers than those grown under the medium PPF.
Bare-root, mature, hybrid Phalaenopsis seedlings were dipped in one of three growth retardant solutions for 5 seconds or sprayed with a growth retardant 4 weeks following planting during inflorescence elongation. Dipping the entire plant in daminozide (2500, 5000, or 7500 mg·liter-1) before planting delayed flowering by 5-13 days, whereas foliar applications had no effect. Paclobutrazol (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1) dips did not affect the bloom date but effectively restricted inflorescence growth below the first flower (stalk). Increasing concentrations produced progressively less growth. Foliarly applied retardant treatments were less effective than dipping. Flower size, flower count, and stalk thickness were unaffected by treatments. Dipping in high concentrations of paclobutrazol (200 or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (100 or 200 mg·liter-1) caused plants to produce small, thick leaves. During the second bloom season, inflorescence emergence and bloom date were progressively delayed by increasing concentrations of paclobutrazol and uniconazole. Neither retardant affected flower count or size. Foliarly applied daminozide increased stalk length. In another experiment, foliar paclobutrazol treatment restricted stalk growth more effectively when sprayed before inflorescence emergence. Its effect progressively decreased when treatment was delayed. Paclobutrazol concentrations from 125 to 500 mg·liter-1 were equally effective in limiting stalk elongation when applied to the foliage. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1- (p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole); (2 RS, 3 RS) -1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1 H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
Growers realize the importance of nitrogen (N) on the vegetative growth of phalaenopsis orchids (hybrids of Phalaenopsis sp.), but often overlook its influence on reproductive growth. Low N may result in slow plant growth, pale-green leaves, abscission of lower leaves, and few flowers in phalaenopsis. Increasing N concentration up to 200 mg·L−1 promotes leaf growth and increases flower count. High N concentration promotes lateral branching on the flowering stalk, thereby greatly increasing the total flower count and elevating the commercial value. It is important that N be continually applied during the forcing period for best flowering performance, particularly for those that had undergone international shipping. For the vegetative phalaenopsis plants that are induced to flower without being shipped internationally, the N that is already in the plant before spiking provides 43% and the N being absorbed by roots after cooling provides 57% of the total N in the inflorescence at time of visible bud. When insufficiently fertilized or no fertilization is applied during the forcing period, more of the existing N in a plant is mobilized for inflorescence development. Phalaenopsis roots can take up all three forms of N [i.e., nitrate (NO3-N), ammonium (NH4-N), and urea] directly. In two studies, phalaenopsis plants were supplied with the same amount of total N but with varying NO3-N from 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, to 0% (a common N concentration was achieved by the substitution of the respective balance with NH4-N). Plants were smaller when receiving 75% or 100% NH4-N with a tendency of decreasing top leaf width and whole-plant leaf spread as NO3-N decreased from 100% to 0%. Spiking was delayed and spiking rate decreased when plants were grown in sphagnum moss, but not a bark mix, and received more than 50% of the N in NH4-N. As the ratio between NO3-N and NH4-N increased, flowers became increasingly larger. The negative effects of low ratios of NO3-N to NH4-N were more severe in the second flowering cycle. When supplied with 50% or more NH4-N, the absorption of cations by phalaenopsis roots declined, with reduced concentrations of calcium and magnesium in plants, while symptoms of ammonium toxicity appeared, including growth retardation, chlorotic leaves, and necrotic roots. In conclusion, adequate N and its continual supply during both vegetative and reproductive stages are recommended for the best growth and flowering of phalaenopsis. Since phalaenopsis plants prefer N in the NO3-N form, it is suggested that growers choose and apply a fertilizer with nitrate as the major N source.
Bare-root seedling plants of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. arnabilis (L.) Blume × P. Mount Kaala `Elegance'] were grown in five potting media under three fertility levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g·liter-1) from a 20N-8.6P-16.6K soluble fertilizer applied at every irrigation. The five media included 1) 1 perlite:1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal (by volume); 2)2 perlite:2 composted pine bark:1 vermiculite; 3) composted pine bark; 4) 3 perlite:3 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal; and 5) 1 perlite:1 rockwool. During the first flowering season, plants in the 1 perlite: 1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal medium had slightly fewer but larger flowers and thicker stalks (section of the inflorescence between the base and oldest flower) than those in the 1 perlite:1 rockwool medium. Medium had no effect on stalk length. Two media (3 perlite: 3 Metro Mix 250: 1 charcoal and 1 perlite: 1 rockwool) resulted in root systems that were inferior to those in the others. Fertilizer level had no effect on bloom date or flower size. Regardless of medium, increasing the fertility from 0.25 to 1.0 g·liter-1 increased flower count, stalk diameter and length, and leaf production following flowering. During the second flowering season, media had limited effect on plant performance. Increased fertility promoted earlier inflorescence emergence and blooming. Higher fertilizer rates also caused a linear increase in the number of flowers and inflorescences per plant, and in stalk diameter, total leaf count, and leaf size.
Live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) traditionally has been propagated by seed because vegetative propagation has not been successful on a commercial scale (Flemer, 1962; Maynard and Bassuk, 1987; Morgan and McWilliams, 1976). However, as a result of seedling variability, live oaks offered for sale exhibited varied growth forms with variable quality.
In the article “Respiration and Weight Changes of Easter Lily Flowers during Development” by Yin-Tung Wang and Patrick J. Breen [HortScience 19(5):702-703] the captions for the 2 graphs were reversed
Buds or open flowers are often removed in the production of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) bulbs. To determine if time of flower removal affects bulb size or plant growth, flower buds of container-grown ‘Nellie White’ plants were removed when the length of the largest flower bud was 1.0 cm (early) or 3.5 cm (late). Net photosynthesis of the 5th (upper) and 25th (mid-shoot) leaves was monitored and plants were harvested 2 months after full bloom of intact controls. Early disbudding stopped pedicel growth, inhibited stem elongation, and reduced total leaf area 12%, but did not affect bulb weight. Stem elongation was inhibited less by late disbudding; leaf area and plant weight were unaffected. Both fresh and dry bulb weights of late disbudded plants increased by 15%. Early disbudding reduced the rate of net photosynthesis of leaf 5 (particularly during the 3 weeks following full bloom), whereas late disbudding had less effect. Treatments did not affect photosynthesis of leaf 25. Reduced stem growth under late disbudding, without a severe reduction in photosynthesis, may have increased the availability of assimilate for bulb growth. Early disbudding caused 81% of the daughter bulbs to sprout prematurely, compared to 27% for late disbudding and 9% for controls. In a field study, removing flower buds at 1.5 cm or 4.0 cm in length increased bulb fresh weight over intact controls by 12% and 30%, respectively. Disbudding did not increase sprouting of field-grown plants. Delaying removal until the first flower bud is 3.5–4.0 cm long reduces deleterious effects on shoot growth while significantly improving bulb size.
Whole shoots of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Nellie White) were exposed to 14CO2 at 25, 37, and 51 days after full bloom of the commercial crop. Seven days after each exposure, 20% of the total recovered 14C remained in the shoot, which included stem roots, 10-25% in stem bulblets, 11-20% in mother scales, and 34-44% in daughter scales. Sink activity increased sharply from the outer mother scales to the inner daughter scales. The fraction of total 14C in the main bulb decreased, while that in the stem bulblets increased at successive exposures. Another group of plants was labeled repeatedly by dosing with 14CO2 on the three previous occasions and, also, at 65 days after full bloom. Bulbs were harvested 7 days after the final exposure, stored at 18°C for 14 weeks, and then replanted, At bulb digging, 50%, 30%, and 20% of the total 14C recovered were in the main bulb, stem bulblets, and shoot, respectively. Mother scales lost dry weight and 14C during storage and were nearly depleted when flower buds were visible the next season. Specific 14C activity in the emerging flowering shoot was high but decreased dramatically as the leaf number rapidly increased. The shoot and new daughter scales were the principal recipients of mobilized scale reserves, although only 28% of the 14C lost from mother scales were recovered in other plant parts. A majority of the carbon originally in mother scales was likely lost in respiration between fall harvest and 3 weeks after anthesis the following year. The daughter bulb contained 64% of the 14C in the bulb at fall harvest, and lost very little 14C during regrowth the following year.
To simulate the developmental sequence of the Easter lily flower (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. ‘Nellie White’), flower buds from 4.5 cm to 16 cm (anthesis) were cut from field-grown plants on a single date. Fresh weight increased with bud length and was highest at anthesis, whereas dry matter reached a maximum of 1.6 g when buds were 14 cm long. The percentage of dry matter declined from 16% in the smallest bud to only 9% at anthesis. Respiration rates, both per bud and per unit dry weight, increased with bud size, reaching peak values of 3.0 mg CO2 · bud-1 · hr-1 and 1.8 mg CO2 · g-1 dry wt · hr -1 at anthesis before declining to a markedly lower rate. From these data, the total dry matter needs of flowers on field-grown plants were estimated.