Carotenes from vegetables and fruits are vitamin A precursors that contribute about half of the vitamin A in the U.S. diet (3) and two-thirds of the world diet (5). Carrots typically contain 65 to 90 ppm carotenes (1) and are estimated to be the major source of carotene for U.S. consumers (3). Few pro-vitamin A sources surpass the carotene content of typical carrots, although red palm oil can contain >825 ppm carotenes (2). Genetic selection for higher carotene levels in carrots could increase the dietary consumption of carotene and consequently vitamin A. A high carotene mass carrot population was developed for use in breeding, genetic, and biochemical studies of carrot (Fig. 1).