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  • Author or Editor: Miklos Faust x
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Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine water states in paradormant apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds and during early events when buds resumed growth. Proton density and states of water were determined by creating image maps of proton density and relaxation times (T2). Summer-dormant (paradormant) buds had T2 relaxation times up to 30 ms. This water in bud tissues is considered relatively free compared to water that had T2 relaxation times of <1 ms in other parts of the stem and bark. Buds were forced to grow either by pruning off the terminal bud or by starting the bud with thidiazuron (TDZ). Both treatments gave essentially the same results. After treatment, buds started to grow immediately and water moved into the stem and into the bud. As there was more free water in the bud, T2 values ranged up to 50 ms. There appeared to be an inhibitory gradient down on the shoot, which was removed temporarily by excising the top bud. However, between the 2nd and 10th day after removal of the top bud this dominance was reinstated by the highest bud on the stem, which eventually formed a shoot. TDZ treatment overcame this inhibitory gradient effect. There was also a growth potential gradient coinciding with the inhibitory gradient. The growth of lower buds was much slower than that of the upper buds. The growth potential gradient was not overcome by TDZ treatments.

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Progenies of various apple cultivars differ in their accumulation of calcium into the fruit. Fruit from seedlings of ‘Cortland’ accumulated relatively high, whereas seedlings of ‘Cox Orange’ accumulated low Ca. Ca content of 15 progenies are listed.

Open Access