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  • Author or Editor: James N. Moore x
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The color and chemical composition of three strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) cultivars, `Arking', `Cardinal', and Earliglow' and one advanced selection, A-7383, were examined at four maturity stages in a 2-year study. Cultivar- and maturity-related differences were observed in CIELAB color space coordinates, L*, a*, b*, anthocyanin concentration, percent soluble solids; pH, titratable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, and total solids, insoluble solids, fructose, and sucrose content. No cultivar effect was detected for glucose concentration. `Arking' and `Cardinal' had the most intense red color and were similar in L*, a*, b* values, titratable acidity, and the concentration of anthocyanin, soluble solids, total solids, and fructose. They differed significantly in pH, sugar/acid ratio, and insoluble solids. A-7383 and `Earliglow' exhibited differences in all measured characteristics except total solids. A-7383 fruits contained the lowest anthocyanin concentration and were the darkest and least red of the genotypes.

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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) were used to study the transition of meristems from vegetative to floral phase in erect primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries [Rubus (Tourn.) L. subgenus Rubus] developed at the Univ. of Arkansas. Dormant root cuttings of A-1836 and APF-13 blackberries were dug from the field and planted on 28 Dec. 1996 and 1 Mar. 1997 to produce plants for use in a greenhouse study. In a field study, terminal buds of field-grown A-1836, APF-13, NC194, and summer-fruiting `Arapaho' were sampled on 21 Mar 1997 (before shoot emergence from soil), and then weekly from 14 to 28 May 1997. Flower bud primordia were first observed at five and six nodes of growth in greenhouse-grown A-1836 and APF-13 plants, respectively, 35 to 42 days after root cuttings were planted (DAP). Under field conditions, floral primordia were not observed until 21 May when A-1836 and APF-13 had at least 20 nodes of growth; NC194 did not differentiate floral structures until 10 July. The developmental patterns of the vegetative apical meristem in the PF selections, both field- and greenhouse-grown plants, were similar to those of `Arapaho'. Opening of the terminal flower of the inflorescence occurred 32 to 35 days after floral initiation in APF-13, and 8 to 10 days later on A-1836. Field-grown NC194 bloomed in late August. The first fruits of greenhouse-grown APF-13 were harvested 120 DAP. These findings demonstrate that PF blackberries form flower buds after a short period of vegetative growth.

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`White Rock' and `White County' fresh market peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were released in 2004 by the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. These cultivars join `White River' as recent products of the peach breeding program which is based at the University of Arkansas Fruit Substation, Clarksville. Both cultivars are sub- or low-acid types and have white flesh. `White Rock' ripens at on average 25 June, and is very firm at maturity. Average fruit weight was 142 g with 12% soluble solids and light white peach flavor. `White County' ripens on average 14 July. It is large fruited with average weight of 258 g and maintains firmness until full maturity. The fruits are freestone with an excellent white peach flavor. Both cultivars show good bacterial spot resistance although occasional lesions are seen on leaves. These new cultivars offer additional white peach cultivar choices for the mid-South and other areas of similar climate.

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Abstract

Diurnal and seasonal measurements of leaf water potential (ψ1), leaf diffusive resistance (R1), and leaf stomatal conductance (gs) of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Bluecrop) were made in 1984 and 1985. Marked diurnal variation in ψ1, R1, and gs was observed. The most negative values of ψ1 were usually reached by 1000 Central Standard Time and were maintained until late afternoon. Leaf stomatal conductance values were high in early morning, remained high throughout the day, and decreased in late evening. Stomata were absent on the adaxial leaf surface, while the abaxial surface averaged 553 stomata/mm2. Unexplained seasonal changes in ψ1 and R1 were noted in 1985. Leaf water potential and R1 were significantly correlated in one year. Leaf water potential and R1 were significantly correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, respectively, in both years.

Open Access

Trials were established in Fayetteville, Ark., in 1993 and in 1994 to evaluate grape germplasm for downy mildew resistance. Accessions were obtained from the national grape repositories in Geneva, N.Y.; Davis, Calif.; and the Univ. of Arkansas fruit substation, Clarksville. The 1993 trial contained 26 cultivars, eight selections, and 24 Vitis species; the 1994 trial contained 37 cultivars. Each trial had four single-plant replications. Plants were rated on a scale of 0 to 5 for sporulation, chlorosis, and necrosis on 23 Aug. and 26 Sept. 1994. Fungicides were not applied to the vineyard to better determine the level of natural downy mildew resistance. The results from both trials indicated that several grape accessions showed little or no symptoms of downy mildew, which suggests these have resistance that would be beneficial to use in a breeding program.

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Abstract

‘Ebano’ is a high-yielding, thornless blackberry cultivar (Rubus, subgenus Eubatus) with good adaptation to the mild humid climate of southern Brazil. It will be of value to the newly developing blackberry processing industry of southern Brazil due to its late maturity, high processing quality, and thomlessness for hand harvesting. ‘Ebano’ is the Portuguese word for ebony.

Open Access