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  • Author or Editor: Edward J. Ryder x
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Six genes controlling flowering time or bolting time in Lactuca L. have been reported. Several crosses between parents differing in time to opening of first flower were made to ascertain the inheritance of additional flowering time traits in Lactuca species. The parents in the crosses were of five flowering classes: very late (VL), late (L), early (E), very early (VE), and very, very early (VVE). Segregation from a cross between C-2-1-1 (VL) (L. sativa L.) and `Vanguard 75' (L) confirmed that `Vanguard 75' flowering was controlled by the previously identified gene Ef-2ef-2. Mutant line 87-41M-7 (VVE) was crossed by D-3-22M (VE) and segregated 3VVE:1 VE, indicating a dominant allele, Ef-3, that decreased flowering time an additional 7 days. Cos-like line 796 (VE) was crossed to cultivars Salinas (VL) and Vanguard 75. Segregation indicated a gene Ef-4ef-4, with lateness dominant. PI 175735 (E) (L. serriola L.), crossed with C-2-1-1 produced an F2 population with a bimodal distribution, segregating 3 E:1 VL, indicating a single gene Ef-5ef-5. PI 236396 (E) and PI 250020 (E) were crossed to `Salinas' and `Vanguard 75'. Segregation and morphological similarity indicated the same gene in both PI lines, Ef-6ef-6, with earliness dominant.

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Abstract

Intermittent mist spraying of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) flowers during the period of anther dehiscence permits continuous removal of pollen with little effort Pollination following pollen removal by this method produced 94% hybrids compared to 50% or less usually obtained by the conventional washing method.

Open Access

Abstract

A review of the current research, production, botany, history and evolution, and food value of the artichoke. Emphasis is on breeding, cultural practices, and entomology research.

Open Access

Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) is an important lettuce disease in California. No adequate control measures have been found, although resistance exists in several heirloom cultivars. Deployment of cultivars resistant to bacterial leaf spot will reduce these periodic and costly disease events. The objectives of this research were to 1) identify new sources of resistance within modern crisphead cultivars and 2) select for resistance in `Salad Crisp' × `Iceberg' progeny. Field plots were established and grown with overhead irrigation, and a three-strain mixture of Xcv was applied until runoff 1 week after thinning at 1 × 109 CFU/mL. Twenty-six crisphead cultivars were tested in unreplicated field trials and rated on a 1 (susceptible) to 4 (resistant) scale. Selection was carried out between and within families from the F2 to F4 generation. Sixteen F3 families were evaluated in unreplicated plots, and 12 F5 families were tested in replicated plots for disease incidence and severity. No usable levels of resistance were identified in the modern crisphead cultivars tested to date. All F3 families had resistance greater than `Iceberg', and 19 plants from eight families were selected for further breeding. Subsequently, 12 plants from two F4 families were selected. Replicated trials of 12 F5 families indicated that all lines have disease severity comparable to both parents. Breeding lines from crosses to `Salinas 88' are currently being developed.

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