The tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) rose 86-7 (Rosa wichuraiana × R. rugosa rubra) and its hybrids with the thornless tetraploid rose cultivar Basye's Blueberry (2n = 28) were analyzed for meiotic configuration frequencies and meiotic abnormalities. Genomic relationships in these hybrids were interpreted with the aid of a model of meiotic chromosome association in tetraploids. The closest-fitting model solutions indicated a 2:2 (AABB) pattern of genomic relationships, with 65% to 90% of all association between most closely related genomes. Some of the optimal solutions were transitional to a “ring4” pattern, in which one of the possible pairing arrangements is suppressed. The same configuration frequencies could also reflect a “4:0” pattern of equally similar genomes with fractionally more than two independent pairing and chiasma-forming domains per chromosome. Observed meiotic abnormalities included chromosome stickiness and asynchronous chromosome contraction within cells. Pollen stainability varied independently of meiotic irregularity or multivalent frequency. The observed configuration frequencies are consistent with partially tetrasomic inheritance that retains considerable heterozygosity, but allows individual contributions from parental genomes to become homozygous.
Yan Ma, Charles F. Crane and David H. Byrne
David H. Byrne, Aleksander N. Nikolic and Edward E. Burns
A wide range of color, sugar, and acid composition was found among 12 peach [Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch] genotypes. Among the high-acid genotypes, a trend of increasing Hunter `a' values, fructose, soluble solids concentration (SSC): titratable acidity (TA) ratio, and decreasing TA and citric acid levels was noted with decreasing mesocarp firmness. Mesocarp firmness was correlated with both skin and flesh `a' values within all genotypes. Among genotypes, the Hunter `a'/firmness relationship varied. `Elberta', a cultivar known to retain a greenish ground color, had a lower Hunter `a' value when soft than did more recent releases such as `Dixiland', `Redhaven', and `Suwanee'. `Sam Houston', a low-acid cultivar, had lower TA and malic, citric, and quinic acid levels than the other cultivars. The dominant acid for all genotypes was malic (50% to 60% of total) with about equal amounts of citric and quinic. Soluble sugars included sucrose (54% of total), fructose (31%), and glucose (15%). `Sam Houston' had lower SSC, a higher percentage of sucrose, lower levels of glucose and fructose, but the same relative sweetness values as the high-acid cultivars.
Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David H. Byrne, David W. Ramming and W.R. Okie
Nineteen peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] genotypes and 45 plum (Prunus salicina Erhr. and hybrids) genotypes with different flesh and skin color were analyzed for their antioxidant content and activity. Anthocyanin content, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were higher in red-flesh than in light-colored flesh peaches. Carotenoid content was higher in yellow-flesh peaches than in light-colored ones. Red-flesh plums generally had higher anthocyanin and phenolic contents than the other plums but not necessarily greater antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic content had the most consistent and highest correlation with antioxidant activity, indicating that it is more important in determining the antioxidant activity of peaches and plums than are the anthocyanin or carotenoid contents. In general, the wide range of phytochemical content and antioxidant activity found indicates that the genetic variability present can be used to develop cultivars with enhanced health benefits.
H. Brent Pemberton, Kevin Ong, Mark Windham, Jennifer Olson and David H. Byrne
Rose rosette disease (RRD) is incited by a negative-sense RNA virus (genus Emaravirus), which is vectored by a wind-transported eriophyid mite (Phyllocoptes fructiphilus). Symptoms include witches broom/rosette-type growth, excessive prickles (thorns), discolored and distorted growth, and, unlike most other rose diseases, usually results in plant death. RRD is endemic to North America and was first described in Manitoba, Wyoming, and California in the 1940s. It has spread east with the aid of a naturalized rose species host and has become epidemic from the Great Plains to the East Coast of North America on garden roses in home and commercial landscapes where losses have been high. The disease was suggested to be incited by a virus from the beginning, but only recently has this been confirmed and the virus identified. The presence of the vector mite on roses has been associated with RRD since the first symptoms were described. However, more recently, the mite was demonstrated to be the vector of the disease and confirmed to transmit the virus itself. As a result of the RRD epidemic in North America and its effects on the national production and consumer markets for roses, a research team comprising five major universities (Texas, Florida, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Delaware), a dozen growers and nurseries (all regions), six rose breeding programs (California, Wisconsin, Texas, and Pennsylvania), the major rose testing programs (Earth-Kind and AGRS), the major rose organization (American Rose Society), and the major trade organization AmericanHort has formed. This research project has been funded by the Specialty Crops Research Initiative through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the short-term objective of improving and disseminating best management practices (BMPs) and the long-term goal of identifying additional sources of resistance and developing the genetic tools to quickly transfer resistance into the elite commercial rose germplasm.
Yan Ma, M. Nurul Islam-Faridi, Charles F. Crane, David M. Stelly, H. James Price and David H. Byrne
To our knowledge, there has been no published technique to produce consistently high-quality slides of somatic chromosomes of roses (Rosa sp.). Therefore, various pretreatments, fixatives, digestions, stains, and maceration and squashing methods were tested to identify a procedure to produce clear, well-spread chromosomes from shoot tips. The best results were obtained after pretreatment in a mixture of 0.1% colchicine and 0.001 m 8-hydroxyquinoline for 4 h, and fixation in 2 acetone: 1 acetic acid (v/v) with 2% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone. The darkest-stained chromosomes were obtained with carbol-fuchsin staining of air-dried cell suspensions that had been spread in 3 ethanol: 1 acetic acid (v/v).
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne and Jeremy F. Taylor
Breeding values (BVs) for four plant (bloom date, fruit development period, fruit density, and blind node propensity) and five fruit (weight, blush, shape, soluble solids, and titratable acidity) traits of 28 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] genotypes used as parents in the Texas A&M University peach breeding program were predicted using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). Data from seedlings of 108 families developed from 42 peach parents were analyzed by using a mixed linear model, with years treated as fixed and additive genotypes as random factors. The precision of the predictions was high for most parental genotypes, as indicated by the correlations (rTI) between predicted and true BVs and the standard error of the predictions (SEP). In most cases, the higher the number of progeny, the better the agreement between predicted and true BVs for that parent. Parents with observations from more than 30 seedlings had a rTI ≥ 0.90 and smaller SEPs. For all traits analyzed, the lowest precision (low rTI and high SEP) was observed for `Flordaking', whose predicted BVs was based only on pedigree information.
Alberto C.Q. Pinto, Suzanne M. Dethier Rogers and David H. Byrne
The influence of medium formulation, methods of ovule support, and ovule perforation on in vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos (4.0 to 8.7 mm long) was investigated. Maximum embryo dry weights were attained with vermiculite support, ovule perforation, and 10% sucrose in the medium. At high sucrose levels, all three tested media (Monnier, modified Murashige and Skoog, or modified Stewart and Hsu medium) performed similarly. Adding IAA and kinetin to culture media did not enhance embryo growth. Using the vermiculite support system, small embryos of early maturing peach cultivars, obtained at fruit maturity, were cultured successfully and used as maternal parents in breeding programs. Chemical name used: indole acetic acid (IAA).
Kevin Ong, Madalyn Shires, Holly Jarvis Whitaker, Jennifer Olson, Joseph LaForest and David H. Byrne
Rose rosette disease (RRD) was first reported on the North American continent in the early 1940s. In 2011, the causal agent of this disease was identified and described—the Rose rosette virus (RRV). In the last 10 years, RRD has gained widespread notoriety because of disease symptoms appearing on many roses which are used frequently in landscape plantings, both commercial and residential. Much of the prior scientific work on this disease was carried out on the multiflora rose. Currently, the disease issues are on cultivated roses within which no cultivar has been confirmed to be resistant. There is an information gap in our knowledge of the pathogen, vector, and the disease on cultivated roses. Our goals for this project are to seek and identify potential disease tolerance or resistance in roses and increasing public awareness and knowledge of RRD with the purpose of reducing the disease spread with best management practices. Outreach and volunteer recruitment are key activities used to provide scientifically sound information, to establish the current disease range and to actively gather observational reports of RRD to identify resistant rose sources. Elements of these activities include educational meetings, factsheets, posters, and workshops where RRD symptoms recognition is emphasized. A web-based reporting tool was developed to capture observations from volunteers while continually keeping them engaged. It is hoped that through outreach and the collective monitoring effort, researchers will have access to information that contributes to a better understanding of RRD and will find disease-resistant roses that could be used in breeding programs for the continued enjoyment of roses.
Unaroj Boonprakob, David H. Byrne, Charles J. Graham, W.R. Okie, Thomas Beckman and Brian R. Smith
Diploid plums (Prunus L. sp.) and their progenitor species were characterized for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms. Bootstrap analysis indicated the variance of genetic similarities differed little when the sample size was >80 markers. Two species from China (Prunus salicina Lindl. and P. simonii Carr.) and one species from Europe (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) contributed the bulk (72% to 90%) of the genetic background to the cultivated diploid plum. The southeastern plum gene pool was more diverse than those from California, Florida, or South Africa because of the greater contribution of P. cerasifera and P. angustifolia Marsh. to its genetic background.
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne and Jeremy F. Taylor
Seedlings of 108 families from crosses among 42 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars and selections were evaluated for six plant characteristics in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The data were analyzed by using a mixed linear model, with years treated as fixed and additive genotypes as random factors. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was used to estimate fixed effects. Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate variance components, and a multiple trait model was used to estimate genetic and phenotypic covariances among traits. The narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.41, 0.29, 0.48, 0.47, 0.43, and 0.23 for flower density, flowers per node, node density, fruit density, fruit set, and blind node propensity, respectively. Most genetic correlations among pairs of traits were ≥0.30 and were, in general, much higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. Flower density and flowers per node (ra = 0.95), fruit density and fruit set (ra = 0.84) and flower density and fruit density (ra = 0.71) were the combinations of traits that had the highest genetic correlation estimates. Direct selection practiced solely for flower density (either direction) is expected to have a greater effect on fruit density than direct selection for fruit density.