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- Author or Editor: Yin-Tung Wang x
Rooted cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch cv. Gutbier V-14 Glory were planted in 2-liter containers with growth media having 0% to 75% composted cotton burrs (CCB) in combination with sphagnum peat and/or composted pine bark. Leachates from media with 50% or more CCB had higher initial electrical conductance (EC) (3.7 to 4.0 dS·m-l) than that from media with 25% or no CCB (2.8 to 3.0 dS·m-l) 2 weeks after planting. The differences in leachate EC declined after an additional 9 weeks. Media containing CCB produced slightly shorter and narrower plants with 10% smaller inflorescences and less dry weight than plants grown in a medium consisting of equal volumes of peatmoss and bark. Number of branches and bracts, days to bloom, and plant grade after 30 days under 15 μmol·s-l· m-2 photosynthetic photon flux were unaffected by media.
In the article “Respiration and Weight Changes of Easter Lily Flowers during Development” by Yin-Tung Wang and Patrick J. Breen [HortScience 19(5):702-703] the captions for the 2 graphs were reversed
Drench paclobutrazol or uniconazole applications (0.1-1.0 mg/0.5-liter pot or 0.05-0.2 mg/pot, respectively) were effective in suppressing stem elongation of golden pothos [Epipremnum aureum (Linden & Andrè) Bunt.]. Although the leaf production rate was reduced by both retardants, treated plants produced larger leaves than the controls, resulting in greater total leaf areas. Response to foliar paclobutrazol or uniconazole applications (0-200 and 0-100 mg·liter-1, respectively) was similar to the soil drench patterns, except that the leaf production rate was unaffected. Following 10 weeks in an interior environment, plants previously treated with either retardant produced shorter stems, fewer but larger leaves, and lower fresh weights than the nontreated plants. Cuttings collected from stock plants previously treated with a paclobutrazol or uniconazole soil drench (0.1 or 0.05 mg/0.5-liter pot, respectively) produced longer stemmed shoots, more and larger leaves, and heavier shoot fresh weights than cuttings from the nontreated plants. Foliar paclobutrazol application (0-200 mg·liter-1) to stock plants resulted in cuttings producing larger leaves and heavier shoot fresh weights than controls. Chemical names used: (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,-4-dlmethyl-2-(l,2,4-trizol-l-yl)pentin-3-ol (paclobutrazol);(E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,-4-timethyl-2-(1,2,4-trizol-l-yl)l-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Bare-root seedling plants of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. arnabilis (L.) Blume × P. Mount Kaala `Elegance'] were grown in five potting media under three fertility levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g·liter-1) from a 20N-8.6P-16.6K soluble fertilizer applied at every irrigation. The five media included 1) 1 perlite:1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal (by volume); 2)2 perlite:2 composted pine bark:1 vermiculite; 3) composted pine bark; 4) 3 perlite:3 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal; and 5) 1 perlite:1 rockwool. During the first flowering season, plants in the 1 perlite: 1 Metro Mix 250:1 charcoal medium had slightly fewer but larger flowers and thicker stalks (section of the inflorescence between the base and oldest flower) than those in the 1 perlite:1 rockwool medium. Medium had no effect on stalk length. Two media (3 perlite: 3 Metro Mix 250: 1 charcoal and 1 perlite: 1 rockwool) resulted in root systems that were inferior to those in the others. Fertilizer level had no effect on bloom date or flower size. Regardless of medium, increasing the fertility from 0.25 to 1.0 g·liter-1 increased flower count, stalk diameter and length, and leaf production following flowering. During the second flowering season, media had limited effect on plant performance. Increased fertility promoted earlier inflorescence emergence and blooming. Higher fertilizer rates also caused a linear increase in the number of flowers and inflorescences per plant, and in stalk diameter, total leaf count, and leaf size.
Bare-root, mature, hybrid Phalaenopsis seedlings were dipped in one of three growth retardant solutions for 5 seconds or sprayed with a growth retardant 4 weeks following planting during inflorescence elongation. Dipping the entire plant in daminozide (2500, 5000, or 7500 mg·liter-1) before planting delayed flowering by 5-13 days, whereas foliar applications had no effect. Paclobutrazol (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1) dips did not affect the bloom date but effectively restricted inflorescence growth below the first flower (stalk). Increasing concentrations produced progressively less growth. Foliarly applied retardant treatments were less effective than dipping. Flower size, flower count, and stalk thickness were unaffected by treatments. Dipping in high concentrations of paclobutrazol (200 or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (100 or 200 mg·liter-1) caused plants to produce small, thick leaves. During the second bloom season, inflorescence emergence and bloom date were progressively delayed by increasing concentrations of paclobutrazol and uniconazole. Neither retardant affected flower count or size. Foliarly applied daminozide increased stalk length. In another experiment, foliar paclobutrazol treatment restricted stalk growth more effectively when sprayed before inflorescence emergence. Its effect progressively decreased when treatment was delayed. Paclobutrazol concentrations from 125 to 500 mg·liter-1 were equally effective in limiting stalk elongation when applied to the foliage. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1- (p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole); (2 RS, 3 RS) -1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1 H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' plants grown under 1300 μmol·m-2·s-1 maximum photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) in a greenhouse deliberately were completely defoliated when the oldest flower bud was 2, 4, or 7 cm long. Plants were then placed in growth chambers in darkness or in the light (250 μmol·m -2·s-1 PPF, 10 hours) with 25C air, along with intact plants as controls; all were harvested at the completion of flowering. Defoliation at the 2- and 4-cm bud stages resulted in complete flower abortion, with or without light. Plants defoliated at the 7-cm stage and kept in light had 60% of the flower buds develop to anthesis but depleted more scale reserves. Those defoliated at the 7-cm stage and kept in darkness had complete flower abortion; however, bulb weights remained similar to those of the intact plants kept in the light.
Uniconazole and paclobutrazol were tested for their effects on greenhouse production of four foliage species. Soil drenches of uniconazole retarded shoot and petiole elongation of Brassaia actinophylla Endl. Paclobutrazol reduced shoot elongation, but required higher doses than uniconazole and did not reduce petiole growth. Foliar sprays with either retardant at 12.5 mg·liter-1 resulted in short stems on lateral shoots of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume `Karen' after pinching, but soil drenches at low rates were less effective. Soil drenches of uniconazole or paclobutrazol were equally effective in reducing stem growth of Syngonium podophyllum Schott `White Butterfly' and increasing leaf width, but had no effect on the rate of leaf production or blade length. Both retardants induced short petioles in this species. Severe growth reduction occured on Plectranthus australis R. Br. even at the lowest rates of uniconazole and paclobutrazol (0.025 and 0.20 mg/pot, respectively) as soil drenches. Production of lateral shoots was inhibited for P. australis by both retardants. Chemical names used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethy1-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole); (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-(H-1,2,4-triazol-l-Yl-)Dentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
The levels of hydration of several hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels) varied greatly. Starch-based polymers had the fastest rate of hydration (<2 hours), followed by a propenoate-propenamide copolymer. Polyacrylamide materials required 4 to 8 hours to become fully hydrated. Maximum water retention in distilled water varied from 400 to 57 g of water per gram of dry material. All hydrogels retained less water in the presence of metal ions or fertilizers in the soaking solution, with substances releasing Fe+2 being the most detrimental. After exposure to fertilizers and ions, the water-holding capacity of a polyacrylamide with a high degree of cross linkage, but not that of hydrogels of the other structures, was fully recovered by subsequently soaking in distilled water. Pots amended with a polyacrylamide polymer but without Micromax (a micronutrient source) reached maximum water retention after six irrigations, while those with Micromax required 10 irrigations to reach peak water retention. The amounts of water being held in pots decreased after repeated fertilization. Medium volume increased with increasing levels of the polyacrylamide Supersorb C (0, 2, 4, or 6 g/pot). Micromax incorporated in medium amended with Supersorb C caused a depression in volume. Medium bulk density, total water retention, and water retention per unit volume of medium were increased by the incorporation of the hydrogel, regardless of the presence of Micromax. Noncapillary porosity measured at container capacity in medium amended with Micromax progressively decreased as the amount of hydrogel increased, but remained unchanged in medium without Micromax. Repeated drying and dehydration of the medium resulted in reduced water retention and increased noncapillary pore space.
Live oak trees raised from acorns are highly non-uniform and many produce numerous undesirable rhizomic shoots. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare the growth rates between (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees from seed and cutting in four production systems and 2) determine if trees from cuttings produce rhizomic shoots. Rhizomic shoot cuttings 25–30 cm long were taken from a single tree about 50 years old in late Aug. 1990, rooted, and planted in 2.6-L pots after 2 months. During the same week, acorns were collected from the same tree and germinated. All trees were planted into 13-L pots in July 1991 and then to a field in July 1992. Trees from both sources were planted either directly in the ground, in 36.6- or 45.7-cm-diameter polypropylene fabric bags buried in the ground, or in 13-L pots on the ground. Trunk circumference 10 cm above the soil line was roughly measured yearly between 1992 and 1999. Initially, trees from cuttings grew slightly slower than seedlings, having a smaller trunk circumference, diameter, and cross-sectional area. These differences diminished and all trees had similar circumferences after 1996. In 1992, trees in 36.6-cm bags and pots had more growth than trees in the ground. In 1993, trees in pots had better growth than those in the ground. After 1993, all trees had similar circumferences until the end of this study, probably due to roots extending beyond the bags and pots into the surrounding soil. About one-third of the seedling trees produced rhizomic shoots, whereas none of the trees from cuttings did. The rhizomic shoots of trees in pots were contained within the pot and none from the ground. Another significance of this research is that the cloned trees from cuttings were extremely uniform in growth habit and form.