Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 71 items for

  • Author or Editor: John Ruter x
Clear All Modify Search

Seeds of Sophora secundiflora (Ort.) Lag ex. DC. (mescal bean) were scarified with hot water or concentrated sulfuric acid to determine an optimal pretreatment for successful germination. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the acid scarification treatment removed the seed cuticle. One-year-old seeds were successfully stored and germinated ≈2 days sooner than from the current year if both were given an acid pretreatment. Germination rate increased as acid pretreatment time increased from 30 to 120 minutes. Soaking seeds in water at room temperature or in hot water (initially 93C) for 24 hours had no effect on germination.

Free access

Respiration of excised Ilex crenata `Rotundifolia' roots as influenced by root-zone growth temperature and buffer solution temperature was measured in the presence and absence of SHAM and KCN. Respiration rates of roots excised from plants grown for three weeks at root-zone temperatures of 30, 34, 38, and 42 C decreased linearly as root-zone temperature increased when the buffer solution was maintained at 25 C. When the buffer solution temperature was the same as the root growth temperature, no differences in respiration rate were found. When plants were grown at a root-zone temperature of 30 C, respiration was maximal at 34 C and decreased to a minimum at 46 C. Above 46 C, stimulation of O2 consumption occurred which was presumed to be extra-mitochondrial. CN-resistant pathway activity decreased at a buffer solution temperature of 46 C which was similar to the critical threshold temperature (48±1.5 C) for `Rotundifolia' holly roots.

Free access
Authors: and

Hibiscus moscheutos L. is an herbaceous hibiscus native to eastern North America that has been a popular landscape and container plant exhibiting large and colorful flowers in the summer. However, unsightly fruit develop and remain on the stalks at the end of the blooming season, which greatly decreases the ornamental value. Thus, breeding for sterility was attempted through ploidy level manipulation to reduce formation and growth of seed stalks, and to improve blooming vigor and longevity. Colchicine and oryzalin were used as mitotic inhibitors to induce tetraploid breeding lines that could be used to develop sterile triploids. Germinated seedlings of ‘Luna Red’ were soaked in three concentrations of each doubling agent for three different durations. Exposure to a low concentration of colchicine solution for a long time or to a low concentration of oryzalin for a short period was found to be effective in yielding a high number of tetraploids with a low rate of mortality. Triploids were obtained from the traditional method of crossing tetraploids with diploids. Triploid and tetraploid plants showed a decrease in height with a more compact form. Leaves of tetraploid plants were more ruffled, with an increase in overall leaf thickness, but were not different from leaves of diploids and triploids in regard to leaf mass per area (LMA). Triploid plants bloomed longer but had smaller flowers than diploid plants. Although the whole planting was infected by aerial phytophthora, diploid, tetraploid, and triploid plants were significantly different in their tolerances: all diploid branches were infected, but only a minor infection occurred on one triploid branch, and the transmission remained slow. Flowers of tetraploid plants failed to produce pollen, whereas flowers of triploid plants produced only nonviable pollen grains and fruits aborted after pollination, which led to infertility of induced triploids.

Free access

Swamp sunflower (Helianthus simulans) is an underused perennial plant native to the southeastern United States that produces an abundance of golden yellow inflorescences in the fall. It is a vigorous grower and tolerates a wide variety of soil conditions, growing in wetland and nonwetland habitats. Swamp sunflower warrants wider use in perennial beds and landscapes, and research on production practices to make plants more suitable for shipping could promote its production. This study evaluated the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth and floral attributes of the swamp sunflower. Treatments were applied to rooted cuttings in 1-gal pots as a substrate drench of 1, 2, 4, or 6 mg/pot paclobutrazol; 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/pot flurprimidol; or water (control)/pot for Expt. 1. A second experiment (Expt. 2) applied 4, 6, or 8 mg/pot paclobutrazol; 2, 4, or 6 mg/pot flurprimidol; or water (control)/pot. Six weeks after treatment (WAT) for Expt. 1, paclobutrazol applied at 4 and 6 mg/pot and flurprimidol at 2 and 4 mg/pot resulted in smaller plants (as reflected by growth index) by 29%, 34%, 22%, and 48%, respectively, compared with the control. Furthermore, at the termination (6 WAT) of Expt. 1, the highest rate of flurprimidol produced the smallest plants, with the exception of the highest rate of paclobutrazol. By 6 WAT, plants treated with the highest rate of paclobutrazol and flurprimidol had lower dry weights and higher chlorophyll measurements than control. All PGR treatments for Expt. 2 resulted in smaller plants than the control by 27% to 36% at 4 WAT and 23% to 41% at 6 WAT. Differences for internode length and flower diameter were observed for Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. Results from these experiments suggest a substrate drench application of 6 mg/pot paclobutrazol or 4 mg/pot flurprimidol can be used for producing smaller plants compared with nontreated plants for swamp sunflower under greenhouse conditions.

Open Access
Authors: and

The genus Pavonia is one of the largest genera in the Malvaceae species; it is mainly distributed in South America. Three species of Pavonia were identified based on different flower colors and potential for landscape use in the southeastern United States. These species produce a large amount of seed at the end of the blooming season, which is not ideal for ornamental use. To reduce the seed set, gamma irradiation was used for mutation induction and propensity to induce compactness and sterility. A preliminary study indicated that the seed of Pavonia hastata would germinate at irradiation rates up to 2000 Gy. Seeds of three species were treated with six different dose rates ranging from 0 Gy to 1000 Gy to determine the ideal rate for Pavonia breeding and how gamma irradiation affected seed germination. M1 (the first mutant generation) P. lasiopetala and P. missionum were sown in 2018 and planted in the field at the University of Georgia Durham Horticulture Farm on 1 May 2019, as were M2 (the second mutant generation) seeds of P. hastata. Seed germination in 2019 showed no significance due to treatment but significance due to species and species by treatment interaction. Field evaluation performed in 2019 indicated that height was not influenced by irradiation for any of the three species but that the width index was. Flower diameter and leaf area of P. missionum became smaller as the irradiation rate increased, but the other two species showed no trends. Chlorophyll mutations were observed on P. hastata at the 1500 Gy level, which has attractive traits for ornamental use.

Open Access
Authors: and

Interest in plant species that support pollinator health has been increasing in recent years. As a result, research into these historically overlooked species is increasing. One such taxon is milkweed (Asclepias spp.), a genus primarily native to North America that serves as an oviposition and food source for various pollinators, especially the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.). Although exhaustive research has been conducted on Asclepias flower morphology, seed production, and pollinator impact, little cytological work has been published. Knowing the genome size of species can predict their ability to hybridize and the potential of genetic variability within a genus. Our study used 15 different Asclepias species and four interspecific Asclepias hybrids, and the total genomic content was calculated using propidium iodide. We found the 2C genome size ranged from 0.65 to 1.24 picograms. To our knowledge, our research presents data on eight species with previously unknown genomic content and is the first to report 2C values for interspecific Asclepias hybrids.

Open Access

Salvia is a genetically diverse genus in the Lamiaceae family, with hundreds of species distributed globally. With base chromosome numbers ranging from 6 to 19 and ploidy levels ranging from diploid to octoploid, the genus has been proposed to be subdivided based on molecular data rather than morphology. However, little is known about total DNA content across the genus. The DNA content of 141 Salvia genotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Samples of Salvia were stained with propidium iodide and compared with the internal standards Pisum sativum ‘Ctirad’ and Solanum lycopersicum ‘Stupické’ to generate estimations of DNA content. Holoploid 2C genome sizes of the analyzed Salvia ranged from 0.63 pg to 6.12 pg. DNA content showed a wide distribution across chromosome number, ploidy, and clade. The wide distribution of DNA content across the genus further indicates the diversity of Salvia and may be useful for future breeding efforts.

Open Access

The effect of container design on physical parameters of media with different bulk densities was evaluated. A significant interaction between container design and media for water-holding capacity and air space was found. A container with a polyester fabric bottom had the largest media air space and the smallest water-holding capacity after 24 h of drainage when placed on a column of sand to allow for free drainage from the container medium. For the media tested, a blend of composted pine bark and hardwood bark (PB:HB) appeared to have good physical characteristics for a container medium in the container designs that were evaluated. Container design should be considered when selecting a container medium because physical parameters of a given medium will be influenced.

Free access