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Passiflora is an important ornamental genus, mainly within tropical zones. However, two cold-hardy, North American Passiflora species exist. Previous work has been done to incorporate these species into breeding programs with some success. The intent of this study was to evaluate the extent of genetic diversity among five different Passiflora genotypes, including the two native North American species, P. incarnata L. and P. lutea L. Results indicate low genetic similarity among all genotypes with none at 50% or greater. P. incarnata and the ornamental cultivar `Lady Margaret' displayed the highest relationship at 49%. P. incarnata averaged 35.5% similarity with the other genotypes and P. lutea was 29.5%. Average overall similarity among all genotypes was 31.1%. These and other results show that the Passiflora genus has a high degree of genetic variation and breeding efforts could expand interest within North America.

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Molecular markers have been used previously to identify linkages to important traits of interest. In this study two marker types, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR), were used to find molecular markers linked to two morphological traits in blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus). Thorniness and floricane fruiting are both qualitative, recessive traits that are inherited tetrasomically. A cross of `Prime-Jim'® × `Arapaho' was made to create a population that segregated for the two traits. A random sample of 98 plants from a population of 200 were assayed to find molecular markers that co-segregate with the two traits. Three putative markers were identified for the floricane fruiting trait (two SSRs and one RAPD; χ2 = 4.09 to 9.99, P < 0.001 to 0.043). Five potential RAPD markers were found for the thorny trait (χ2 = 3.88 to 10.23, P < 0.001 to 0.048). Identification of markers linked to these traits could potentially be useful in marker-assisted selection.

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Crop Listingsz : Almond, Almond Rootstock, Apple, Apricot, Apricot Rootstock, Blackberry, Blueberry, Cherry Rootstock, Cherry—Sweet, Currant, Grape, Hazelnut, Nectarine, Pawpaw, Peach, Peach Rootstock, Pear—Asian, Pear—European, Pecan, Persian Walnut, Plum and Plum Hybrids, Plum Rootstock, Raspberry, Strawberry

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Seeds of 25 blackberry (Rubus spp.), five red raspberry (R. idaeus L.), and two black raspberry (R. occidentalis L.) populations that had been stored for 22 to 26 years were planted in the greenhouse to evaluate their germination. Germination ranged from 0% to 84% among all populations. Thorny and thorny × thornless blackberry populations had the highest average germination; most populations had >40% germination. Thornless blackberry populations ranged from 1% to 16% germination. The seeds of two of the five red raspberry populations did not germinate and none of the black raspberry seeds germinated.

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The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) `Blueridge', `Cape Fear', `Cooper', `Georgiagem', `Gulf Coast', and `O'Neal'; the rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) `Climax'; and the highbush (V. corymbosum L.) `Bluecrop' were evaluated for ovary damage following exposure of flower buds to 0 to 30C in a programmable freezer in Dec. 1993 and Jan. and Feb. 1994. The plants sampled were growing at the Univ. of Arkansas Fruit Substation, Clarksville. Damage was based on oxidative browning of the ovaries following an incubation period after removal from the freezer. With the exception of `Climax', a minimum temperature of –15C was required before bud damage was sufficient enough to differentiate among cultivars. All southern highbush cultivars and `Bluecrop' had superior hardiness compared to `Climax' at –15C in December, –20C in January, and –15C in February. Maximum hardiness of all cultivars was found in January. The hardier southern highbush cultivars were `Cape Fear' and `Blue Ridge'. Less hardy cultivars were `Gulf Coast, `Cooper', `Georgiagem', and `O'Neal', although the date of sampling affected the ranking of these clones for hardiness, especially for the February sample date. `Bluecrop' was not consistently hardier than the hardier southern highbush cultivars, except at the February sample date.

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Yield and average berry weight were measured for first year fruiting (on semi-erect canes) and second year fruiting (erect canes) to compare harvest age effect for erect blackberries established from root cuttings. cultivars were `Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Navaho' and `Shawnee' and 4 plantings were included in the comparison. One of the four plantings had an average yield of 27% more in the first year as compared to the second year. The other plantings had higher yields in the second year as compared to the first ranging up to a 100% increase. Yield was 23% higher for the second year when all plantings were averaged. Average yield increase by cultivar in the second year compared to the first was: 'Choctaw' 37%, 'Cheyenne' 27%, 'Navaho' 22% and 'Shawnee' 20%. Berry weight was not affected by harvest age except in one planting, where average weight was higher for first year fruiting.

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Two replicated blueberry plantings, one containing one highbush, (Vaccinium corymbosum) two southern highbush and two rabbiteye (V.ashei) cultivars, and another containing one highbush and three rabbiteye cultivars were sampled in October, 1991 and plant parasitic nematodes extracted and counted. Additionally, 15 commercial rabbiteye plantings were sampled. Standard and southern highbush samples had total plant parasitic nematode levels of 228-451 nematodes/250 ml soil compared to 4-14 nematodes/250 ml soil for rabbiteye. No difference in nematode population was found among the standard highbush ('Bluecrop') and southern highbush ('Cooper', 'Gulfcoast') cultivars. Xiphinema americanum was the most common nematode species found, along with very small populations of Paratrichodorus minor. All commercial plantings had lower nematode levels in samples from the blueberry plants as compared to those from the sod middles between the rows. Nematode levels from commercial plantings ranged from 1477/250ml soil from blueberry plants and 11-1546/250 ml soil from the sod middles. Species found at high levels in the sod samples were usually distinctly different from those found associated with the blueberry plants.

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