Commercial shipments of strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa) were evaluated from the harvest point to the distribution center (DC). Simulated retail conditions were afterward imposed on the fruit. Commercially harvested ‘San Juan’ strawberries in California were instrumented in the field for temperature and relative humidity (RH) monitoring during handling and distribution. At the cooling facility, five different treatments were imposed on five pallets of strawberries: prompt precooling to a final temperature of 1.7 or 10.0 °C, 4-hour delayed precooling to a final temperature of 1.7 or 10.0 °C, and no precooling. Immediately before being loaded into the trailer, all pallets were wrapped in a modified atmosphere (MA) pallet shrouds. Upon arrival at the DC in Florida, fruit from the same five pallets were exposed to three simulated retail temperatures (0, 6, and 21 °C) for 3 days. Results from this study showed that the refrigerated trailer was unable to maintain the temperature of any of the pallets during transport. In addition, upon arrival at the DC in Florida, strawberries from the partial precooling (cooled to 10.0 °C), 4-hour delayed precooling, and no precooling treatments had higher water loss and lower visual quality compared with fruit that were immediately precooled to a final temperature of 1.7 °C. On the basis of the quality control standards of the cooling facility in California, most of the fruit from the no precooling treatment were considered unacceptable for shipment 1 day after harvest. During simulated retail display, quality of the fruit held at 21 °C was inferior to that of fruit maintained at 0 or 6 °C, particularly that of fruit from the partial and delayed precooling treatments. Strawberries from the prompt precooling to a final temperature of 1.7 °C treatment had acceptable visual quality after simulated retail display for 3 days at 0 °C, whereas visual quality of the fruit from the delayed or partial precooling treatments ranged from slightly poor to poor after the same period of time. The presence of bruises due to mechanical damage shortened the shelf life of the fruit because of accelerated development of decay. Overall, results obtained from this study highlight the importance of prompt precooling and the use of optimum storage temperature (i.e., 0 °C) throughout the distribution chain and during retail display.
William Pelletier, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes and Jean-Pierre Émond
Michael J. Mahovic, Keith R. Schneider, Kim Cordasco and Jeffrey K. Brecht
The effect of ethylene on the survival of Salmonella cells residing on unwounded surfaces of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit was investigated in this study. Inoculated fruit were stored in flow-through chambers that were adjusted to maintain an environment simulating a tomato ripening room. Fruit were held at 20 °C and ≥95% relative humidity after surface inoculation with the low virulence and rifamycin-resistant pathogen S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 (S. Typhimurium). Tomato fruit were treated either with a continuous flow (rate, ≈200 mL·min−1) of air or with ≥150 μL·L−1 ethylene in air. Bacterial recovery at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of treatment showed that total populations of the S. Typhimurium cells declined in both the air and ethylene treatments during the first 24 to 48 h of storage, then increased to near initial levels by 72 h, similar to decline and recovery reported by other researchers in nonethylene treatment trials. These results suggest that although Salmonella can survive on the surfaces of tomato fruit in typical ripening rooms, proliferation of Salmonella is neither promoted nor inhibited by ethylene exposure.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Robert C. Soliva Fortuny, James P. Mattheis, Roger Stanley, Conrad Perera and Jeffrey K. Brecht
`Gala' apples [Malus silvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were treated with ethanol vapor (5 mL·kg-1 fruit for 24 hours at 25 °C), heat (4 days at 38 °C and >98% RH), or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; 1 or 0.625 μL·L-1 for 18 hours at 20 °C) before processing into slices, then dipped in anti-browning solutions or coatings, drained, and packaged in perforated polyethylene bags. Residual effects of pretreatments on fresh-cut slice physiological and quality attributes were investigated during storage for up to 19 days at 5.5 °C. Ethylene production was reduced by ethanol, heat, and 1-MCP pretreatments, while ethanol and heat also reduced slice respiration. Heat and 1-MCP pretreatments inhibited slice texture changes, while ethanol had no effect on instrumental texture measurements but reduced sensory firmness. Ethanol pretreatment increased the contents of ethanol and ethyl esters in slices but reduced acidity, while heat reduced both acidity and aroma volatile levels. Both ethanol and heat pretreatments led to lower sensory scores for apple flavor and ethanol-pretreated slices also received higher scores for altered flavor, although all scores were in the acceptable range. Slice acidity was best maintained by 1-MCP pretreatment. Shelf life based on appearance was 15 to 16 days for ethanol-pretreated slices and 12 days for heat-pretreated slices compared to that of control, which was 8 to 9 days, while 1-MCP pretreatment promoted decay development on the cut surface, which reduced the shelf life to 7 to 8 days. Obvious separations were determined between ethanol- and heat-pretreated slices and untreated control by canonical discriminant analysis of headspace volatile levels determined by GC and electronic nose. Therefore, pretreatments with ethanol and heat are very effective for prolonging visual shelf life at the expense of aroma quality.
David C. Diehl, Nicole L. Sloan, Christine M. Bruhn, Amarat H. Simonne, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
As part of a larger project to show how fresh fruits and vegetables with enhanced flavor can be successfully handled to improve consumer satisfaction without compromising food safety, key informant interviews were conducted with fruit industry leaders dealing with melons (Cucumis melo and Citrullus lanatus), peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica), pears (Pyrus communis), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa), and blueberries (Vaccinium sp.). The interview was designed to collect information on industry attitudes and practices related to postharvest handling of more mature fruit, harvest timing, preconditioning, cold chain management, and shipping and handling procedures throughout the supply chain. The current analysis focuses on two key questions from the interviews: 1) To what extent do industry experts believe that better fruit handling and shipping procedures contribute to better taste quality in fruit? 2) To what extent do industry experts believe that better fruit quality will lead to more consumer purchasing? In response to the first question, the majority of respondents (70%) agreed that postharvest handling affects fruit flavor with the most cited themes related to agreement being gentle handling, cold chain management, and harvest timing. Of the respondents who expressed disagreement most acknowledged the importance of postharvest handling, but felt other factors were also important, mainly the variety grown, the shelf life requirements, and the growing conditions. For the second question, 95% of respondents agreed that increased taste quality of fruit would mean increased purchasing and consumption. The primary theme related to agreement was that consumers would repeat purchase after positive eating experiences. Other important factors were the price point of fruit, retail display, product identity, and fruit appearance. With increasing consumer attention to fruit quality and a generally accepted belief among industry representatives that fruit flavor and quality drives consumer demand, there is an opportunity to shift industry practices toward postharvest handing that is conducive to consistently delivering better-tasting fruit to consumers.
Michael J. Mahovic, Rajya Shukla, Renée M. Goodrich-Schneider, Michael V. Wood, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Keith R. Schneider
It has been reported that netted muskmelons (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis) treated with moist heat (steam or hot-water immersion) have reduced populations of vegetative surface organisms that may be responsible for spoilage, or that may be pathogenic to consumers. It is unknown, however, what affect a similar heat treatment may have on infesting bacterial endospores (which are dormant, nonreproductive structures that are resistant to environmental stress). Also, any heat treatment used must be effective without exceeding the treated melon's thermal damage threshold. In this study, natural microflora on muskmelon rind pieces treated from 75 to 95 °C for 3 minutes and whole fruit rinds inoculated with Bacillus atrophaeus spores and treated at 85 °C for 3 minutes were observed as a model system to explore the efficacy of moist heat in reducing surface populations of bacterial spores. There were significant reductions in populations of aerobic, nonspore-forming microbes, although the treatments had little to no effect on either the recoverable populations of inoculated B. atrophaeus spores or indigenous spore-forming bacteria. Recovery studies suggested a less than 2 log10 unit reduction of inoculated B. atrophaeus spores after a 3-minute, 85 °C moist heat treatment, and no heat injury symptoms developed on melons during storage for 2 weeks at 5 °C. Increasing treatment temperature from 75 to 95 °C resulted in no increase in efficacy in terms of recovery of indigenous vegetative bacteria. The results of this study suggest that aqueous heat treatment is not a suitable method for reducing populations of the resting structures of spore-forming bacteria from the surface of netted muskmelons.
Jaysankar De, Aswathy Sreedharan, You Li, Alan Gutierrez, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and Keith R. Schneider
Cooling procedures used by blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) growers often include delays up to 24 hours that can damage the fruit through rough handling and adverse temperatures, thereby potentially compromising quality and, subsequently, safety. The objectives of this experiment were to compare forced-air cooling (FAC) compared to hydrocooling without sanitizer (HW) and hydrocooling with sanitizer (HS) regarding the quality and shelf life of southern highbush blueberry [SHB (Vaccinium corymbosum)] and to determine the efficacy of these treatments for reducing Salmonella in SHB. Freshly harvested SHB that were inoculated with a five-serovar cocktail of rifampin-resistant Salmonella were rapidly chilled by FAC or hydrocooling (HW and HS) using a laboratory model system. FAC did not show any significant reduction (P > 0.05) in Salmonella or in the effects on the microbiological quality of blueberries. HW and HS reduced Salmonella by ≈2 and >4 log cfu/g SHB, respectively, on day 0. These postharvest treatments was also evaluated for their ability to help maintain fruit quality throughout a storage period of 21 days at 1 °C. Hydrocooling (both HS and HW) provided more rapid cooling than FAC. Hydrocooled blueberries showed significant weight gain (P < 0.05), whereas FAC resulted in a slight, but insignificant (P > 0.05), reduction in final weight. The results of hydrocooling, both HS and HW, shown in this study could help to extend the shelf life while maintaining or increasing the microbiological quality of fresh market blueberries. Information obtained by this study can be used for developing the best temperature management practices to maintain the postharvest safety and quality of blueberries.
Shahab Hanif-Khan, Robert C. Bullock, Peter J. Stoffella, Charles A. Powell, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Heather J. McAuslane and Raymond K. Yokomi
Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) feeding was associated with development of tomato irregular ripening (TIR) symptoms. `Micro-Tom', `Florida Basket', `Florida Lanai', and `Florida Petite' dwarf cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were infested with adult SLW to observe oviposition preference, plant tolerance, and TIR symptom development in two experiments. There was no oviposition preference among the cultivars in either of the trials. TIR fruit symptoms were expressed as longitudinal red streaks with yellow, green, pink, or red blotches externally and white tissue internally. External TIR symptoms at the pink stage of ripening ranged from 32% (`Micro-Tom') to 82% (`Florida Basket') in Expt. 1 and 44% (`Micro-Tom') to 93% (`Florida Petite') in Expt. 2. In Expt. 1, external TIR symptoms disappeared from 18% (`Florida Lanai') to 37% (`Micro-Tom') and, in Expt. 2, 16% (`Micro-Tom') to 39% (`Florida Basket') of the fruit during ripening. SLW-infested plants exhibited 82% (`Florida Lanai') to 99% (`Florida Basket') and 76% (`Micro-Tom') to 90% (`Florida Petite') of fruit with internal white tissue regardless of external symptoms in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. Tomatoes with severe TIR symptoms rarely ripened to full red. Postharvest characteristics of ripening SLW-infested and control fruit were evaluated (Expts. 3 and 4). Generally, the SLW-infested fruit were lighter in color than the control fruit. The control fruit developed normal red color while the SLW-infested fruit developed a blotchy, streaky color that was overall more of an orange-red. SLW-infested fruit were firmer than the control fruit in both experiments. Ethylene production was higher in SLW-infested fruit. While the total soluble solids contents were not significantly different between the treatments, the SLW-infested fruit were more acidic than the control fruit. Each cultivar was susceptible to oviposition by SLW and induction of TIR symptoms. However, TIR symptom expression differed among the cultivars. Despite higher ethylene levels, the ripening process in the SLW-infested fruit appeared slower or may have been inhibited by factors induced by the SLW compared with the control fruit, which ripened normally.
John W. Scott, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Harry J. Klee, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Stephen M. Olson, Jerry A. Bartz and Charles A. Sims
Andrew J. Macnish, Malkeet S. Padda, Francine Pupin, Pavlos I. Tsouvaltzis, Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
The efficacy of several proprietary plastic pallet cover systems to maintain strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) fruit quality during commercial shipment was determined. ‘Albion’ fruit were harvested from farms near Watsonville, CA. Fruit in vented plastic clamshells were palletized and forced-air cooled to 33–35 °F. Different cover systems (CO2 West, PEAKfresh, PrimePro, Tectrol) were placed over the pallets. Pads that released carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were placed inside the CO2 West cover. The Tectrol cover was sealed to the pallet base, a partial vacuum was applied, and pressurized CO2 gas was injected inside. The systems other than Tectrol remained open at the base. Six separate shipments of palletized fruit were transported in refrigerated (32–39 °F) truck trailers to distribution centers in either Florida or Georgia in 2.3–4.7 days. CO2 concentrations within pallets at the beginning and end of transport were highest (11% to 16%) in the sealed Tectrol system and relatively low (0.06% to 0.30%) in the open CO2 West, PEAKfresh, and PrimePro cover systems. Relative to noncovered control fruit, which lost 0.8% fresh weight during shipment, the pallet covers reduced the transport-related weight loss by 38% to 52%. The incidence of fruit decay was low (1.0% to 1.4%) after transport but increased substantially following a 2-day shelf life at 68 °F. However, fruit from the Tectrol pallets exhibited significantly less decay (36%) after shelf life than the CO2 West (39%), noncovered control (41%), PrimePro (42%), and PEAKfresh (43%) pallets. Fruit sensory quality was unaffected by the different pallet cover systems. Our findings show that transporting strawberries in the sealed Tectrol pallet cover system, in which CO2 concentrations were elevated to 11% to 16%, was most effective in complementing current low temperature management practices to maintain fruit quality.