The responses of certain antioxidants in detached leaves of two cultivars of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) differing in their senescence rates were assessed during storage in order to explore the significance of these antioxidants in senescence regulation and dynamics. To identify spinach cultivars differing in their senescence rates, 10 cultivars were grown in field plots, harvested at maturity, and their leaves detached and stored at 10 °C in the dark. At the point of harvest (d 0) and on d 5, 8, 12, and 15, samples were analyzed for lipid peroxidation (MDA), chlorophyll loss, and electrolyte leakage. The cultivars were also grown in laboratory growth chambers to corroborate field results. Two cultivars that were consistently identified as having relatively high (Spokane F1) and low (BJ 412 Sponsor) senescence rates were grown in growth chambers for 45 d, harvested at maturity, and their leaves detached and stored as above. At the point of harvest (d 0) and on d 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, samples were analyzed for (i) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 184.108.40.206), catalase (CAT; EC 220.127.116.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 18.104.22.168), and (ii) concentrations of MDA, total ascorbate, reduced ascorbate (AsA), oxidized ascorbate (DAsA), total glutathione, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Although MDA accumulated in leaves of both cultivars concomitant with time after detachment, levels became significantly higher in Spokane. Activities of ASPX declined in Spokane leaves following detachment but activities of SOD and levels of glutathione increased in this cultivar. GSH/GSSG increased in `Sponsor', but dramatically more so in `Spokane'. Ascorbate concentrations did not diminish in leaves of `Spokane' to the degree that they did in `Sponsor' tissue. DAsA/AsA values did not decrease in `Spokane' leaves following detachment, though they did in those of `Sponsor'. It is argued that declining activities of ASPX and levels of ascorbate and increasing activities of SOD manifested in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in Spokane, leading to a greater potential for lipid peroxidation in this variety than for Sponsor. SOD activities and glutathione levels may have increased as a result of elevated oxidative stress in Spokane. Increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation in `Spokane' relative to `Sponsor' may have contributed to an increased rate of senescence in the leaves of this cultivar.
D. Mark Hodges, Wendy V. Wismer and Charles F. Forney
Orville Osmicote, Charles F. Forney, Jeffrey Richards and Chiam Liew
D. Mark Hodges, Charles F. Forney and Wendy Wismer
The degree of damage that may occur through harvesting and packing represents one of the major factors that can affect quality of fresh-cut produce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different steps in a representative fresh-cut processing line on storage quality of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). To this end, spinach leaves were removed at successive points on the line: 1) before entry into the line (control); 2) after a shaking procedure but before initial rinsing with 10 °C water + 5 mg·L-1 chlorine dioxide; 3) after centrifugal drying; and 4) after commercial packaging. After removal from the different points in the line, the spinach samples were stored at 10 °C for 16 days, during which time malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (lipid peroxidation assay), electrolyte leakage (membrane leakiness), chlorophyll content (a, b, and total), and color attributes (L, saturation, hue angle) were measured. Both lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased with time of storage and with stage of procesing. Electrolyte leakage increased most in material removed after the shaking procedure, but prior to hydrocooling. Overall total chlorophyll loss during storage did not change with time of removal from the processing line, although overall chlorophyll b content decreased in stored material 8 days following centrifugal drying and packaging. A more rapid loss in chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b over the first 8 days of storage was reflected in hue angle measurements regardless of the point of removal. The processing line under study, thus had both beneficial and detrimental effects on storage quality of spinach. Detrimental effects associated with centrifugal drying and packaging procedures could be modified to improve quality.
Charles F. Forney, Willy Kalt and Michael A. Jordan
D. Mark Hodges, Charles F. Forney and Wendy V. Wismer
The objective of this study was to assess responses of certain antioxidants in harvested leaves of selected cultivars of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) differing in postharvest senescence rates in order to explore the significance of these antioxidants in postharvest senescence regulation and dynamics. Ten cultivars were grown in both field plots and laboratory growth chambers, harvested at maturity, and their leaves detached and stored at 10 °C in the dark. Following postharvest analysis, two cultivars were identified consistently as having relatively high (`Spokane F1') and low (`BJ 412 Sponsor') postharvest senescence rates. These two cultivars were then grown in a growth chamber for 45 days and their leaves detached and stored as above. At the point of harvest (day 0) and on days 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, samples were analyzed for activities of ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 22.214.171.124), catalase (CAT; EC 126.96.36.199), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 188.8.131.52), and (ii) concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of lipid peroxidation), total ascorbate, reduced ascorbate (AsA), oxidized ascorbate (DAsA), total glutathione, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Although MDA accumulated in leaves of both cultivars concomitant with time after detachment, levels became significantly higher in `Spokane F1'. It is argued that declining activities of ASPX and levels of ascorbate and increasing activities of SOD manifested in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in `Spokane F1', leading to a greater potential for lipid peroxidation in this cultivar than for `BJ 412 Sponsor'. SOD activities and glutathione levels may have increased as a result of elevated oxidative stress in `Spokane F1'. Increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation in `Spokane F1' relative to `BJ 412 Sponsor' may have contributed to an increased rate of senescence in the harvested leaves of this cultivar.
Jun Song, Lihua Fan, Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
Volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated as potential signals of heat injury for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit. `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples were exposed to 46 °C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 hours (heat treatments). Following treatments, fruit were kept at 20 °C and evaluated after 1, 2, 4, or 7 days. Heat treatments induced volatile production including ethanol and ethyl acetate. The 8 and 12 hours heat treatments increased ethanol and ethyl acetate production in all four cultivars by as much as 170- and 11-fold, respectively, 1 day after treatments. Heat treatments also reduced ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heat for 12 hours caused serious flesh browning. Among the cultivars investigated, `Northern Spy' and `McIntosh' were most susceptible to heat stress based on the degree of flesh browning. Correlation coefficients of heat stress induced ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence with flesh browning were 0.82 and -0.66, respectively. The nondestructive measurements of ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence have potential to identify stressed fruit with reduced quality or compromised storage life.
Artur Miszczak, Charles F. Forney and Robert K. Prange
`Kent' strawberries were harvested at red, pink, and white stages of development, and stored at 15C in the light. Fruit were sampled over a 10-day period and evaluated for volatile production and surface color. Volatile production by red and pink fruit peaked after 4 days of storage. Maximum volatile production by red fruit was 8- and 25-fold greater than maximum production by pink and white fruit, respectively. Aroma volatiles were not detected in the headspace over white berries until 4 days following harvest after which volatile production increased through the tenth day of storage. Changes in the surface color of white berries during postharvest ripening coincided with the production of volatiles. In another experiment, red, pink, and white `Kent' strawberries were stored for 3 days at 10 or 20C in the dark or light. Fruit were then evaluated for volatile production, weight loss, anthocyanin content, and surface color changes. White berries produced volatile esters after 3 days of storage at 20C in the light. Both light and temperature influenced the relative production of the volatiles produced by pink fruit. Fresh weight loss, color change, and anthocyanin content were temperature and light dependent.
Charles F. Forney, Roger E. Rij, Ricardo Denis-Arrue and Joseph L. Smilanick
The potential use of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) to prevent decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. in table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated. `Thompson Seedless' and `Red Globe' grapes, inoculated with Botrytis cinerea spores, were placed in polyethylene bags and flushed for 10 minutes with VPHP generated from a 30% to 35% solution of liquid hydrogen peroxide at 40C. Immediately after treatment, bags were sealed and held at 10C. Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced the number of terminable Botrytis spores on grapes. The number of terminable spores on `Thompson Seedless' and `Red Globe' grapes had been reduced 81% and 62%, respectively, 24 hours following treatment. The incidence of decay on inoculated `Thompson Seedless' and `Red Globe' grapes was reduced 33% and 16%, respectively, after 8 days of storage at 10C compared with control fruit. Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide reduced the decay of noninoculated `Thompson Seedless' and `Red Globe' grapes 73% and 28%, respectively, after 12 days of storage at 10C. Treatment with VPHP did not affect grape color or soluble solids content.
Charles F. Forney, Michael A. Jordan, Kumudini U.K.G. Nicholas and Jennifer R. DeEll
Use of volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence as indicators of freezing injury were investigated for apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). `Northern Spy' and `Delicious' apples were kept at -8.5 °C for 0, 6, or 24 h, and then at 20 °C. After 1, 2, 5, and 7 d at 20 °C, fruit were analyzed for firmness, skin and flesh browning, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylene, respiration rate, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Freezing caused skin and flesh browning and a loss of fruit firmness, which was greater in `Northern Spy' than in `Delicious'. In `Northern Spy' fruit subjected to the freezing treatments, ethanol and ethyl acetate concentrations were as much as 37- and 300-fold greater, respectively, than in control fruit. `Delicious' fruit showed similar patterns of ethanol and ethyl acetate increase, but of lower magnitude, as a result of freezing. Higher fruit respiratory quotients were associated with increased ethanol and ethyl acetate concentrations. Ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence of fruit were reduced by freezing.
Charles F. Forney, Kumudini U.K.G. Nicholas and Michael A. Jordan
Factors affecting the firmness of `Burlington', `Coville', and `Jersey' highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during storage in controlled atmospheres or air were characterized. Fruit were stored for up to 9 weeks in 6-ounce plastic clamshells at 0 or 3 °C. Fruit firmness was measured as grams per millimeter of fruit deformation using a FirmTech1 firmness tester (Bioworks, Stillwater, Okla.). Blueberry fruit held in sealed chambers in 0% CO2/15% O2 did not soften during storage. At 0 and 3 °C, fruit firmness of all cultivars increased an average of 30% after 9 weeks of storage. Changes in fruit firmness varied between cultivars and ranged from no change in `Coville' fruit held at 3 °C to an increase in firmness of 9 g·mm–1 per week in `Burlington' fruit held at 3 °C. CO2 inhibited the postharvest firming of blueberry fruit and at higher concentrations induced softening. At 0 °C, fruit firmness decreased below initial values when held in concentrations of CO2 >12% for `Burlington' and >10% for `Coville' and `Jersey'. At 3 °C, fruit were more tolerant to CO2 and softening occurred at CO2 concentration >17% for `Burlington', and >12% for `Coville' and `Jersey' fruit. CO2-induced softening was enhanced by increased storage time. CO2 also was effective in reducing fruit decay. After 9 weeks, 2% and 36% of fruit held in air at 0 and 3 °C, respectively, were decayed. However, all fruit held in 10 to 25% CO2 had <1% decay. Controlled atmospheres of 10% to 15% CO2 reduced decay while maintaining fruit firmness.