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  • Author or Editor: B. K. Harbaugh x
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Bacteriophages specific to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp), the causal agent of bacterial blight of geranium, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey, were isolated from soil and sludge samples from Florida, California, Minnesota, and Utah. Sixteen phages were evaluated for their potential to lyse 21 Xcp strains collected from around the world. The Xcp strains varied in their susceptibility to the phage isolates with 4 to 14 phages producing a lytic or highly virulent reaction. A mixture of five h-mutants was developed from phages that exhibited the broadest host-ranges and tested against the same Xcp strains. The h-mutant phage mixture lysed all 21 Xcp strains. Three experiments were designed to determine the efficacy of using a mixture of four h-mutant phages to control the spread of the bacterial blight pathogen on potted and seedling geraniums under greenhouse conditions. Plants surrounding diseased inoculated plants were treated with a phage mixture at 5 × 108 pfu/mL daily, biweekly, or triweekly, or treated with Phyton-27®, at 2.0 mL·L-1 every 10 or 14 days. In potted geraniums, daily foliar sprays of the phage mixture had reduced disease incidence and severity by 50% and 75%, respectively, relative to control plants after 6 weeks. In two plug experiments, the phage mixture applied daily also had reduced disease incidence and severity by 69% and 86%, and 85% and 92%, respectively, when compared with controls after 5 weeks. In all three experiments, disease incidence and severity were less for plants treated daily with phages than for those treated less frequently with phages or with Phyton-27®. Chemical name used: copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton-27®).

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A mixture of host-range mutant (h-mutant) bacteriophages specific for tomato race 1 (T1) and race 3 (T3) of the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye was evaluated for biological control of bacterial spot on `Sunbeam' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants and field-grown plants for two seasons (Fall 1997 and Fall 1998). Foliar applications of bacteriophages were compared with similar applications of water (control) and of copper/mancozeb bactericides, the commonly used chemical control strategy for tomato seedling and field production. In 1997, the incidence of bacterial spot on greenhouse-grown seedlings was reduced from 40.5% (control) to 5.5% or 0.9% for bactericide- or bacteriophage-treated plants, respectively. In 1998, the incidence of bacterial spot was 17.4% on control plants vs. 5.5% and 2.7% for bactericide- and bacteriophage-treated plants, respectively, although these differences were not statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Applications of bacteriophages to field-grown tomatoes decreased disease severity as measured by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) by 17.5% (1997) and 16.8% (1998) compared with untreated control plants. Preharvest plant vigor ratings, taken twice during each field season, were higher in the bacteriophage-treated plants than in either bactericide-treated plants or nontreated controls except for the early vigor rating in 1998. Use of bacteriophages increased total weight of extra-large fruit 14.9% (1997) and 24.2% (1998) relative to that of nontreated control plants, and 37.8% (1997) and 23.9% (1998) relative to that of plants treated with the chemical bactericides. Chemical names used: manganese, zinc, carboxyethylene bis dithiocarbamate (mancozeb).

Free access

Abstract

In Florida, most producers of cut chrysanthemums (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) use overhead irrigation systems and fertilize with soluble fertilizer injected through the system. Trickle irrigation can be used to produce cut chrysanthemums with substantial savings in water (2). Controlled-release fertilizers can be successfully used to produce cut chrysanthemums (1) and may be advantageous in certain production situations (3). Direct yield comparisons influenced by the four possible combinations of irrigation and fertilization practices have not been researched in previous studies. We, therefore, evaluated main and interactive effects of overhead or trickle irrigation in conjunction with soluble or controlled-release fertilization on the yield and postharvest quality of cut chrysanthemums.

Open Access

Abstract

Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Jackpot) forced in 10 cm pots were test marketed for 8 days through a mass market outlet at prices ranging from $1.87 to $0.87 per plant. At low retail prices, consumers bought sufficiently more plants to partially or totally offset reduced retailer’s return per plant. At $0.60 wholesale, retailer’s gross margins were $10.10, $25.41, $36.92, and $32.94 at retail prices of $1.87, $1.37, $1.12, and $0.87, respectively.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Floriana Mist’ and ‘Floriana Cascade’ gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata L.) are selections of Gypsophila ‘Bristol Fairy’ (Caryophyllaceae), the double-flowered Baby's Breath used in floral arrangements. These clones were selected because of consistent flowering when rooted cuttings were planted from September through February in central Florida. Inconsistent flowering of commercial cuttings of ‘Bristol Fairy’ when planted during short days (<12 hr light) and cool nights (10° to 15°C) led to the selection of clones which would flower consistently, independent of planting date. ‘Floriana Mist’ and ‘Floriana Cascade’ have performed well in commercial field trials in Florida and California from 1977 to 1981. They were released cooperatively by the Univ. of Florida and Purdue Univ. in 1983.

Open Access