The MADS-box gene family encodes a type of transcription factor, and plays a key role in the growth and development of plants. Here, we identified 62 MADS-box genes in the melon (Cucumis melo) genome using bioinformatics methods. These genes were divided into type I Mα, Mγ, and Mδ subfamilies (26 members) and type II MIKCC subfamilies (36 members) by phylogenetic analysis. There were no genes in type II AGL12, BS, TM8, and MIKC* subfamilies, and type I Mβ subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all motifs had a subfamily-specific distribution except the M domain. The expression analysis of the MADS-box genes showed different expression characteristics. In summary, this study is the first to identify melon MADS-box genes and analyze their gene structures, subfamily distribution, and expression characteristics. These results provide a foundation for investigating the functions of the melon MADS-box genes.
Xin Hao, Yu Fu, Wei Zhao, Lifei Liu, Rengui Bade, Agula Hasi and Jinfeng Hao
Desire Djidonou, Amarat H. Simonne, Karen E. Koch, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Xin Zhao
In this study, the effects of grafting with interspecific hybrid rootstocks on field-grown tomato fruit quality were evaluated over a 2-year period. Fruit quality attributes from determinate ‘Florida 47’ tomato plants grafted onto either ‘Beaufort’ or ‘Multifort’ rootstocks were compared with those from non- and self-grafted controls. Grafted plants had higher fruit yields than non- and self-grafted plants, and increased production of marketable fruit by ≈41%. The increased yield was accompanied by few major differences in nutritional quality attributes measured for these fruit. Although grafting with the interspecific rootstocks led to consistently small, but significant increases of fruit moisture (≈0.6%), flavor attributes such as total titratable acidity (TTA) and the ratio of soluble solids content (SSC) to TTA were not significantly altered. Among the antioxidants evaluated, ascorbic acid concentration was reduced by 22% in fruit from grafted plants, but significant effects were not evident for either total phenolics or antioxidant capacity as assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Levels of carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene, and lutein) were similar in fruit from grafted plants with hybrid rootstocks compared with non- and self-grafted controls. Overall, the seasonal differences outweighed the grafting effects on fruit quality attributes. This study showed that grafting with interspecific hybrid rootstocks could be an effective horticultural technique for enhancing fruit yield of tomato plants. Despite the modest reduction in ascorbic acid content associated with the use of these rootstocks, grafting did not cause major negative impacts on fruit composition or nutritional quality of fresh-market tomatoes.
Xin Zhao, Edward E. Carey, Janice E. Young, Weiqun Wang and Takeo Iwamoto
As the largest group of phytochemicals, dietary phenolics play an important role in human health and disease prevention. Cultural practices have been shown to have the potential for affecting phenolic compounds in food crops. Spring and summer trials were conducted in 2003 to examine the effects of organic fertilization and high tunnel environments on phenolic constituents of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars Red Sails and Kalura. Effects of postharvest storage at 4 °C for 16 days on total phenolics of lettuce harvested from the summer trial were also evaluated. Total phenolics, excluding anthocyanins, were measured spectrophotometrically, and major phenolic constituents were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin glycosides were found to be predominant in lettuce. ‘Red Sails’ consistently exhibited significantly higher phenolic concentrations than ‘Kalura’. Organic (compost + fish emulsion) and conventional (N–P–K + CaNO3) fertilization did not consistently differentially affect lettuce phenolics in our recently established organic and conventional plots. The high tunnel environment generally reduced phenolic levels in lettuce relative to the open field. However, differences between high tunnel and open field varied with cultivar and season. Effects of production factors on lettuce phenolics were maintained during cold storage. There was a substantial increase in total phenolics during storage, likely correlated with declining lettuce quality. Further studies are warranted to more fully assess the impact of cultivar and production management, including organic fertilization, on lettuce phenolics.
Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Eric H. Simonne, Karen E. Koch and John E. Erickson
In addition to managing soilborne diseases, grafting with vigorous rootstocks has been shown to improve yield in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production. However, the influence of different levels of nitrogen (N) and irrigation supplies on grafted tomato plants has not been fully examined in comparison with non-grafted plants, especially under field conditions. The objective of this two-year study was to determine the effects of different irrigation regimes and N rates on yield, irrigation water use efficiency (iWUE), and N use efficiency (NUE) of grafted tomato plants grown with drip irrigation in sandy soils of north Florida. The determinate tomato cultivar Florida 47 was grafted onto two interspecific hybrid rootstocks, ‘Beaufort’ and ‘Multifort’ (S. lycopersicum × S. habrochaites S. Knapp & D.M. Spooner). Non-grafted ‘Florida 47’ was used as a control. Plants were grown in a fumigated field under 12 combinations of two drip irrigation regimes (50% and 100% of commonly used irrigation regime) and six N rates (56, 112, 168, 224, 280, and 336 kg·ha−1). The field experiments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. The whole plots consisted of the irrigation regime and N rate combination treatments, whereas the subplots represented the two grafting treatments and the non-grafted plants. Self-grafted ‘Florida 47’ was also included in the 100% irrigation and 224 kg N/ha fertilization treatment as a control. In 2010, the 50% irrigation regime resulted in higher total and marketable yields than the 100% irrigation regime. Tomato yield was significantly influenced by N rates, but similar yields were achieved at 168 kg·ha−1 and above. Plants grafted onto ‘Beaufort’ and ‘Multifort’ showed an average increase of 27% and 30% in total and marketable fruit yields, respectively, relative to non-grafted plants. In 2011, fruit yields were affected by a significant irrigation by N rate interaction. Grafting significantly increased tomato yields, whereas grafted plants showed greater potential for yield improvement with increasing N rates compared with non-grafted plants. Self-grafting did not affect tomato yields. More fruit per plant and higher average fruit weight as a result of grafting were observed in both years. Grafting with the two rootstocks significantly improved the irrigation water and N use efficiency in tomato production. Results from this study suggested the need for developing irrigation and N fertilization recommendations for grafted tomato production in sandy soils.
Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Donald W. Dickson, Maria L. Mendes and Judy Thies
Interest in specialty melons (Cucumis melo) with distinctive fruit characteristics has grown in the United States in recent years. However, disease management remains a major challenge in specialty melon production. In this study, grafting experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of using Cucumis metulifer, a species known for its genetic resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.), as a potential rootstock for managing RKNs in susceptible specialty melon cultivars. In the greenhouse experiment, honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ was grafted onto C. metulifer and inoculated with M. incognita race 1. The grafted plants exhibited significantly lower gall and egg mass indices and fewer eggs compared with non- and self-grafted ‘Honey Yellow’. Cucumis metulifer was further tested as a rootstock in conventional and organic field trials using honeydew melon ‘Honey Yellow’ and galia melon ‘Arava’ as scions. ‘Honey Yellow’ and ‘Arava’ grafted onto C. metulifer exhibited significantly lower galling and reduced RKN population densities in the organic field; however, total and marketable fruit yields were not significantly different from non- and self-grafted plants. Although the improvement of RKN resistance did not translate into yield enhancements, incorporating grafted specialty melons with C. metulifer rootstock into double-cropping systems with RKN-susceptible vegetables may benefit the overall crop production by reducing RKN population densities in the soil. At the conventional field site, which was not infested with RKNs, ‘Honey Yellow’ grafted onto C. metulifer rootstock had a significantly lower total fruit yield than non-grafted ‘Honey Yellow’ plants; however, fruit yields were similar for ‘Arava’ grafted onto C. metulifer rootstock and non-grafted ‘Arava’ plants. Although no significant impacts on the fruit quality attributes of ‘Honey Yellow’ were observed, grafting onto C. metulifer decreased the flesh firmness of ‘Arava’ in both field trials and resulted in a reduction in total soluble solids content under conventional production. In summary, grafting RKN-susceptible melons onto C. metulifer rootstock offers promise for growing these specialty melons; however, more studies are needed to elucidate the scion–rootstock interaction effect on fruit yield and quality.
Na Liu, Baoli Zhou, Xin Zhao, Bo Lu, Yixiu Li and Jing Hao
Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae), a soilborne disease, often causes significant reductions of yield in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) production where crop rotation is limited. Rootstock replacement through grafting is considered an effective method to control this disease. This 2-year study investigated the eggplant yield, resistance to verticillium wilt, and allelochemicals in root exudates of eggplant grafted onto a tomato rootstock. Both disease incidence and disease severity on grafted eggplant were markedly lower than those of nongrafted eggplants. Fifteen days after V. dahliae inoculation, grafted eggplants did not exhibit any infection, whereas the disease incidence and disease severity index of the nongrafted eggplants were 68.3% and 37.8% in 2006 and 66.7% and 36.3% in 2007, respectively. Twenty-five days after inoculation, disease incidences on grafted eggplants were only 8.1% and 9.5% in 2006 and 2007, respectively, but those of the nongrafted eggplants increased to 100%. As a result, early yield, total yield, and average fruit weight were significantly increased by grafting when inoculated with V. dahliae in 2006 and 2007. Mycelium growth of V. dahliae was inhibited by the root exudates of grafted eggplants. In contrast, the root exudates of nongrafted eggplants enhanced the mycelium growth. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the composition in the root exudates released by grafted eggplants differed not only from the nongrafted eggplants, but also from the tomato rootstock plants. Ten chemical classes were isolated and identified in root exudates of grafted eggplants. Carbazoles, amines, azulene, and fluorene were only detected in the grafted eggplants. The relative contents of ester compounds were the highest in the root exudates from the grafted eggplant followed by derivatives of benzene, whereas the relative contents of benzene derivatives were much higher than that of the ester compounds in the root exudates from the nongrafted eggplant and tomato rootstock.
Xin Zhao, Qianqian Dong, Shubang Ni, Xiyong He, Hai Yue, Liang Tao, Yanli Nie, Caixian Tang, Fusuo Zhang and Jianbo Shen
Macadamia (Macadamia spp.) has been widely planted in southern China and has been now developed into an important industry. China has the largest area of macadamia plantation in the world but provides only 3% production of the world. Current farming systems have a fertilizer surplus of about 73 g of nitrogen (N), 103 g of phosphorus (P), and 24 g of potassium (K) per macadamia plant per year in southern China. Optimizing fertilization recommended for macadamia improves production by about 5 kg per plant. Macadamia develops cluster roots (i.e., proteoid roots) in a P-starvation environment. Overuse of P fertilizers restrains the development of cluster roots as well as rhizosphere processes, thus decreasing the P-use efficiency. Excessive fertilization, especially P fertilization, is one of the major limiting factors in China macadamia production. This study is the first to analyze current management practices and then discuss approaches of improving nutrient management based on the specific root biology of macadamia. For a sustainable macadamia industry, it is imperative to develop appropriate nutrient management by integrating root-zone soil nutrient supply, fertilizer application, and rhizosphere processes.
Eric Simonne, Chad Hutchinson, Jim DeValerio, Robert Hochmuth, Danielle Treadwell, Allan Wright, Bielinski Santos, Alicia Whidden, Gene McAvoy, Xin Zhao, Teresa Olczyk, Aparna Gazula and Monica Ozores-Hampton
The success of the best management practices (BMPs) program for vegetables in Florida is measured by the level of BMP implementation and the improvement of water quality. Both require keeping water and fertilizer in the root zone of vegetables. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Extension Vegetable Group has identified the fundamental principles of 1) basing UF/IFAS production recommendations on the rigors of science and the reality of field production; 2) replacing the out-of-date paradigm “pollute less by reducing nutrient application rates” with “improve water management and adjust fertilizer programs accordingly”; 3) engaging growers, consultants, educators, and regulators in open-channel discussions; and 4) regularly updating current fertilization and irrigation recommendations for vegetables grown in Florida to reflect current varieties used by the industry. The group identified 1) developing ultralow-flow drip irrigation; 2) assisting conversion from seepage to drip irrigation; 3) using recycled water; 4) developing controlled-release fertilizers for vegetables; 5) developing real-time management tools for continuous monitoring of soil water and chemical parameters; 6) developing yield mapping tools for vegetable crops; 7) developing and testing drainage lysimeter designs suitable for in-field load assessment; and 8) using grafting and breeding to develop commercially acceptable varieties with improved nutrient use efficiency by improving morphological, biochemical, and chemical traits as new strategies to keep nutrients in the root zone. These strategies should become funding priorities for state agencies to help the vegetable industry successfully transition into the BMP era.
Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo and Erin N. Rosskopf
Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is considered a promising sustainable alternative to chemical soil fumigation (CSF), and has been shown to be effective against soilborne diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds in several crop production systems. Nevertheless, limited information is available on the effects of ASD on crop yield and quality. Therefore, a field study was conducted on fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in two different locations in Florida (Immokalee and Citra), to evaluate and compare the ASD and CSF performances on weed and nematodes control, and on fruit yield and quality. In Immokalee, Pic-Clor 60 (1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin) was used as the CSF, whereas in Citra, the CSF was Paldin™ [dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) + chloropicrin]. Anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were applied using a mix of composted poultry litter (CPL) at the rate of 22 Mg·ha−1, and two rates of molasses [13.9 (ASD1) and 27.7 m3·ha−1 (ASD2)] as a carbon (C) source. In both locations, soil subjected to ASD reached highly anaerobic conditions, and cumulative soil anaerobiosis was 167% and 116% higher in ASD2 plots than in ASD1 plots, in Immokalee and Citra, respectively. In Immokalee, the CSF provided the most significant weed control, but ASD treatments also suppressed weeds enough to prevent an impact on yield. In Citra, all treatments, including the CSF, provided poor weed control relative to the Immokalee site. In both locations, the application of ASD provided a level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) control equivalent to, or more effective than the CSF. In Immokalee, ASD2 and ASD1 plots provided 26.7% and 19.7% higher total marketable yield as compared with CSF plots, respectively. However, in Citra, total marketable yield was unaffected by soil treatments. Tomato fruit quality parameters were not influenced by soil treatments, except for fruit firmness in Immokalee, which was significantly higher in fruits from ASD treatments than in those from CSF soil. Fruit mineral content was similar or higher in ASD plots as compared with CSF. In fresh-market tomato, ASD applied using a mixture of CPL and molasses may be a sustainable alternative to CSF for maintaining or even improving marketable yield and fruit quality.
Lijia Shi, Jinghui Wang, Zhifeng Gao, Xin Zhao, Francesco Di Gioia, Haichao Guo, Jason Hong, Monica Ozores-Hampton and Erin Rosskopf
With the phase-out of methyl bromide due to its impact on ozone depletion, research has focused on developing alternative chemical and biologically based soil disinfestation methods. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) was developed to control plant-parasitic nematodes, weeds, and soilborne pathogens. However, whether farmers will adopt ASD methods on a large scale is unknown. This study evaluates the economic viability of using ASD in open-field, fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production, drawing on data from field experiments conducted in 2015 in Immokalee, FL, and Citra, FL. The experiment included three treatments: chemical soil fumigation (CSF), ASD1 [the standard ASD treatment with 1482 gal/acre molasses and 9 tons/acre composted poultry litter (CPL)], and ASD0.5 (the reduced rate ASD treatment with 741 gal/acre molasses and 4.5 tons/acre CPL). Results from the economic analysis show that ASD treatments require higher labor costs than CSF regarding land preparation and treatment application. However, yields from ASD treatments are higher than those resulting from CSF, and the improvement in yield was enough to offset the increased labor costs. Relative to CSF, ASD0.5, and ASD1 achieved additional net returns of $630.38/acre and $2770.13/acre, respectively, in Immokalee, FL. However, due to unexpected conditions unrelated to soil treatments, the net return of ASD1 was lower than that of CSF in Citra, FL. Breakeven analysis indicates that ASD treatments would remain favorable even with an increase in the molasses price. However, when the tomato price is low, ASD could potentially lose its advantage over CSF.