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  • Author or Editor: W. E. Ballinger x
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Abstract

Fruit, stems, tendrils, leaves, and leaf petioles of4Noble’ muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. All five of the known 3,5-diglucoside forms of delphinidin (Dp), cyanidin (Cy), petunidin (Pt), peonidin (Pn), and malvidin (Mv) present in fruit of muscadine grape were detected in all sampled tissues except leaves, which contained only Dp, Cy, and Pt in detectable quantities. A sixth unknown pigment was detected in the fruit, and Dp 3-monoglucoside was detected in the leaves. Correlations were calculated to explore pigment relationships between fruit and vegetative tissues. Use of tendrils was best for predicting fruit Cy (r = 0.60), Mv (r = 0.57), Pn (r = 0.66), and Pt (r = 0.87). Use of stem tissue was best for predicting fruit Dp (r = 0.66). Prediction equations are given, and prediction of Cy could be improved by using both tendril and leaf measurements in a multiple regression (r = 0.80).

Open Access

Abstract

Fruit, stem, tendril, leaf, and leaf petioles of 10 selections of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were evaluated for pigment quantity and quality using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All five of the 3,5-diglucoside pigments present in the fruit were present in detectable levels in the other four tissues of at least one selection except for leaves, which lacked peonidin (Pn) in all cases. Eight selections lacked detectable quantities of malvidin (Mv) in the leaves, one lacked Pn in stems, and six lacked Pn in leaf petioles. A sixth unknown pigment was detected in the fruit of two selections, and delphinidin (Dp) 3-monoglucoside was detected in leaves of all 10 selections. Fruit to vegetative tissue correlation and significance values were calculated across genotypes, with r ranging from 0 for fruit to leaf Mv to 0.53 for fruit to leaf petiole Dp. Stepwise regression analysis determined that leaf petiole and leaf tissue measurements together could predict fruit Dp better than could leaf petiole measurements alone (R = 0.80, significant at Ρ = 0.03; and R = 0.53, significant at Ρ = 0.11, respectively), and fruit petunidin (Pt) could be predicted from leaf petiole and stem measurements better than from leaf petiole measurements alone (R = 0.68, significant at Ρ = 0.12; and R = 0.40, significant at Ρ = 0.25, respectively).

Open Access

Abstract

Fruit of 104 clones and 75 seedlings of highbush blueberries were assayed for acidity, soluble solids, and keeping quality. From this group, 9 clones were selected to represent 4 extreme soluble solids and acid classes. These 9 clones were harvested over 2 years at 2 North Carolina locations. The previously reported relationships between high fruit acidity (Ac) or low soluble solids-to-acid ratio (SS/Ac) and high keeping quality (low DK) were extended from a few cultivars to a population of representative blueberry genotypes. Approximately 80% of the decay variability can be accounted for by various soluble solids and acid measures indicating that a soluble solids and acid measure would be useful to the breeder for segregating clones into those of poor, intermediate and good keeping quality. Suggested clonal discriminatory Ac, SS/Ac and pH x SS levels were proposed, and the possibility of field screening of blueberry clones for keeping quality potential was examined.

Open Access

Abstract

A pink (whitish)-fruited blueberry seedling that appeared in a hybrid highbush blueberry progeny in North Carolina is described. The major anthocyanins (Acy) detected in this seedling were arabinosides and galactosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin. The pink seedling had the same 15 possible combinations of 5 aglycones and 3 sugars previously reported for the normally blue-fruited cv. Croatan, but in smaller quantities. Total Acy contents of the pink seedling and 9 siblings ranged from 2.5 (pink fruit) to 49 (blue fruit) mg/10-g fruit. Acy content among the different clones was independent of berry pH, acidity (Ac), soluble solids (SS), or SS/Ac ratio. One hundred and seventy-five seedlings in this same progeny were scored for maximum berry color development. The results suggest that Acy expression is dependent on 1 or 2 major genes and that Acy content may be quantitatively inherited. For cultivars whose fruits are normally blue, the commercial use of blue fruit color as the major criterion of marketability (ripeness) may not be valid since color development is not necessarily related to berry ripeness and quality.

Open Access

Abstract

Levels of 5 anthocyanins (Acy) in black muscadine grapes sampled in 1971 were compared with the visual color ratings and tristimulus values [“Theta” (hue), “L” (lightness), and “Sat” (saturation or chromaticity)] (Hunter Color and Color Difference Meter) of the wines made from grapes of these same clones (vines) in 1968 and aged in the bottle for 1 year. Neither total Acy content, which varied 50-fold, nor contents of the diglucoside (diglc) of delphinidin (Dp), present in larger quantities than those of the other 4 Acy, was associated with a good wine color. In all instances, good red wine color was associated with the presence of 8 or more mg of malvidin-3,5-diglc/100-g of fresh grapes. Good color of wines was also associated with low “Theta” and “L” tristimulus values. These 2 values were well correlated with each other. Multiple correlations indicated that 62% of the variation in “Theta” was accounted for by the natural logarithm of contents of diglc of malvidin (Mv), petunidin (Pt) and cyanidin (Cy) in the grapes. However, 42% was explained by the regression of Mv-3,5-diglc alone. Malvidin-3,5-diglucosides thus had the greatest effect on the hue of the wine. Over 75% of the variation in the tristimulus “L” value of the wine was accounted for by the regression of Pt-3,5-diglc with it. Therefore, good red wine color was largely dependent upon high levels of Mv and Pt diglc in fresh grapes.

Open Access

Abstract

Vaccinium species collected from the eastern United States were grown and fruited at Castle Hayne, N.C. Harvest season extended from 5 June to 22 Aug. Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. was earliest ripening. Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx., V. elliotti Chap., diploid V. corymbosum L., and tetraploid V. pallidum Ait. populations also contained very early- to early-ripening seedlings. Early-ripening seedlings were not observed in tetraploid V. corymbosum populations and reached peak ripeness around mid-June, about with ‘Bluecrop’. One tetraploid V. corymbosum population continued ripening into early August. Vaccinium ashei Reade populations from Georgia began ripening about 2 weeks earlier than Florida V. ashei or Arkansas V. amoenum Ait. populations. One Georgia V. ashei population was only slightly later than tetraploid V. corymbosum. The Florida V. ashei populations continued ripening into late August. The diploid species V. darrowi Camp, V. tenellum Ait., and V. stamineum L., were all basically late in ripening. The potential utility of these species in breeding for both early- and late-ripening Vaccinium genotypes is discussed.

Open Access

Abstract

Eleven species in sections Cyanococcus and Polycodium of the genus Vaccinium were compared among themselves and with standard cultivars for soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids/acid ratio, weight/berry (g), stem scar diameter (pedicel diameter at the berry), scar depth, fruit removal force (picking ease), and firmness. Vaccinium ashei Reade populations collected in either Florida or Georgia showed consistent differences in acidity, fruit size, and firmness. No such pattern in geographical differences occurred with V. corymbosum L. Vaccinium stamineum L. (section Polycodium) was outstanding for high soluble solids, large fruit size, small scar diameter, and firmness. Vaccinium elliottii Chapm. seemed promising for mechanical harvesting and processing with high-acid fruit, a favorable soluble solids/acid balance, small scar diameter, and easily harvested fruit. Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. was noted for high soluble solids, small shallow scar, and picking ease; V. pallidum Ait. for high soluble solids and small shallow scar; V. amoenum Ait. for small shallow scar and picking ease; and tetraploid V. corymbosum for high acidity and favorable soluble solids/acid balance. Sufficient variability occurred among and within species for selection for improvement of most traits; however, several generations of backcrossing or recurrent selection would be required for producing genotypes with commercial fruit size.

Open Access