Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 70 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shawn A. Mehlenbacher x
Clear All Modify Search

The relationship between dormancy of seeds and buds of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) might provide breeders with an early opportunity to select for delayed development. Seeds of late-flowering genotypes require much longer exposure to chilling temperatures than those of early flowering” genotypes, and they germinate over a much longer period. In three progenies that exhibit much variation for the two traits, seed germination time was correlated with time of leafing-out of the resulting seedlings, and could be used to select for delayed budbreak. However, selection would be ineffective when little genetic variation for seed germination and budbreak is present. Leafing-out ratings in the nursery in the 2nd year were highly correlated with those in the 3rd year, indicating that selection for late leafing in the nursery during the 2nd year would be more effective than selection based on seed dormancy, especially in progenies exhibiting little genetic variability for this trait. Breeders can effectively use both relationships by first eliminating early germinating seeds and then eliminating early leafing seedlings.

Free access

Eight Corylus L. (hazelnut) species were intercrossed in all possible combinations to reveal genetic relationships. Pollinations were made on either individually bagged branches or trees covered entirely with polyethylene using mixtures of pollen of five genotypes to minimize low cluster set due to single incompatible combinations. Percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival were determined. Hybridity of seedlings was verified by inspection of morphological traits. Based on percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival along with observed morphological similarities, Corylus species were placed in three groups: 1) the tree hazels C. colurna L. (turkish tree hazel) and C. chinensis Franchet (chinese tree hazel), 2) the bristle-husked shrub species C. cornuta Marshall (beaked hazel), C. californica (A.DC.) Rose (california hazel), and C. sieboldiana Blume (manchurian hazel), and 3) the leafy-husked shrub species C. avellana L. (european hazel), C. americana Marshall (american hazel), C. heterophylla Fischer (siberian hazel), and C. heterophylla Fischer var. sutchuensis Franchet (sichuan hazel). The two tree hazel species crossed with each other readily, as did the three bristle-husked shrub species. The frequency of blanks was low (<20%) for crosses of the tree hazels, and <50% for interspecific crosses within the group of bristle-husked species. The leafy-husked shrub species could be crossed with each other in all directions, although cluster set on C. heterophylla was low. For crosses of species belonging to different groups, set was generally low and the frequency of blanks high. Nevertheless, a few hybrid seedlings were obtained from several combinations. When used as the female parent, C. californica set nuts when crossed with all other species, indicating possible value as a bridge species. Crosses involving C. avellana were more successful when it was the pollen parent. In crosses with C. avellana pollen, cluster set on C. chinensis was better than on C. colurna and the frequency of blanks was much lower, indicating that it might be easier to transfer nonsuckering growth habit from C. chinensis than from C. colurna. Reciprocal differences in the success of crosses was observed. The following crosses were successful C. californica × C. avellana, C. chinensis × C. avellana, C americana × C. heterophylla, C. cornuta × C heterophylla, C. californica × C. colurna, and C. americana × C. sieboldiana, but the reciprocals were not.

Free access

Microsatellite-containing sequences for the Betulaceae (Betula, Corylus, and Alnus) were retrieved from GenBank and used to develop twelve new microsatellite marker primer pairs that amplified and were polymorphic in european hazelnut (Corylus avellana). The primer pairs were characterized using 50 european hazelnut accessions. Nine of these microsatellites that segregated in a mapping population were assigned to linkage groups. The 12 new primer pairs will be useful in genetic studies in Corylus and Betula. To investigate transferability of microsatellite primer pairs in the family Betulaceae, we assessed the ability of 129 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs (75 from Corylus, 52 from Betula, and two from Alnus) to amplify DNA of 69 accessions representing diverse taxa. Microsatellite primer pairs from Betula amplified 92% of Betula, 51% of Alnus, 41% of Corylus, 37% of Carpinus, 35% of Ostryopsis, and 34% of Ostrya accessions. In the 69 accessions, microsatellite primer pairs from Corylus amplified 81% of Corylus, 55% of Carpinus, 53% of Ostrya, 51% of Ostryopsis, 41% of Alnus, and 39% of Betula accessions. An additional 147 SSR primer pairs developed from Corylus, used to amplify a subset of 32 accessions, gave similar values: 92% in Corylus, 33% in Carpinus, 33% in Ostrya, 44% in Ostryopsis, 35% in Alnus, and 54% in Betula. The high transferability (>39%) of microsatellite primer pairs between Betula and Corylus will allow comparative studies of the two genera with the greatest economic importance.

Free access

The effect of parentage, spacing, and sucker removal on precocity of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seedlings was investigated. Wider spacing (1.2 vs. 0.6 m) within the row doubled the number of nuts per seedling in the 5th year but had no effect on nut count in the 3rd or 4th year, nor did it affect the percentage of seedlings bearing nuts in any of the three years. Differences among the four progenies were highly significant for number of clusters, number of nuts, and percentage of seedlings bearing nuts in all years and for number of years to first fruiting. The progeny `Barcelona' × OSU 55.097 had the most bearing seedlings in, the 3rd year but was outperformed by `Casina' × OSU 55.129 in the 4th and 5th years. Number of years to first fruiting varied from 4.3 for `Casina' × OSU 55.129 to 5.2 for `Tombul' × `Tonda di Giffoni'. Sucker removal increased both the percentage of seedlings bearing nuts and the number of nuts per seedlings, but the difference was not significant until the 5th year. Sucker removal reduced the length of the juvenile phase by 3 months. The use of precocious parents was more effective than sucker removal in shortening the juvenile period, while sucker removal and wide spacing within seedling rows increased the number of nuts produced by seedlings in the 5th year. Selection of seedlings for early initiation of bearing will shorten the breeding cycle, and the resulting new cultivars will be precocious when planted in commercial orchards.

Free access

From the genome sequence of hazelnut (Corylus avellana), 192 new polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, characterized, and used to investigate genetic diversity in 50 accessions. Next-generation sequencing allows inexpensive sequencing of plant genomes and transcriptomes, and efficient development of polymorphic SSR markers, also known as microsatellite markers, at low cost. A search of the genome sequence of ‘Jefferson’ hazelnut identified 9094 fragments with long repeat motifs of 4, 5, or 6 base pairs (bp), from which polymorphic SSR markers were developed. The repeat regions in the ‘Jefferson’ genome were used as references to which genomic sequence reads of seven additional cultivars were aligned in silico. Visual inspection for variation in repeat number among the aligned reads identified 246 as polymorphic, for which primer pairs were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by agarose gel separation indicated polymorphism at 195 loci, for which fluorescent forward primers were used to amplify the DNA of 50 hazelnut accessions. Amplicons were post-PCR multiplexed for capillary electrophoresis, and allele sizes were determined for 50 accessions. After eliminating three, 192 were confirmed as polymorphic, and 169 showed only one or two alleles in each of the 50 cultivars, as expected in a diploid. At these 169 SSRs, a total of 843 alleles were found, for an average of 4.99 and a range of 2 to 17 alleles per locus. The mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, and the frequency of null alleles were 0.51, 0.53, 0.47, and 0.03, respectively. An additional 25 primer pairs produced more than two bands in some accessions with an average of 6.8 alleles. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed a wide genetic diversity and clustered the 50 accessions according to their geographic origin. Of the new SSRs, 132 loci were placed on the linkage map. These new markers will be useful for diversity and parentage studies, cultivar fingerprinting, marker-assisted selection, and aligning the linkage map with scaffolds of the genome sequence.

Free access

Abstract

‘Jerseycot’ is an early ripening, orange-fleshed, freestone apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) for homeowners and the local fresh market. ‘Jerseycot’ is the first apricot cultivar to be released by the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (1) ‘Jerseycot’ combines several desirable attributes, including good tree health, consistency of cropping, disease resistance, and good fruit quality. It is being introduced to allow apricot production in New Jersey and areas with a similar climate.

Open Access

`Gasaway' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is highly resistant to eastern filbert blight caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Muller. Progeny produced from controlled crosses of `Gasaway' with five susceptible genotypes and open pollination in a `DuChilly' orchard were planted in a diseased orchard and rated for symptom expression for 9 to 10 years. All progeny were found to segregate 50% resistant: 50% susceptible, indicating that `Gasaway' is heterozygous for a single dominant resistance gene.

Free access

Ninety hazelnut (Corylus sp.) genotypes were surveyed for response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] following greenhouse inoculation using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visual inspection for cankers. Most were cultivars of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and a few were interspecific hybrids. Six genotypes did not display signs of the pathogen or symptoms of disease: `Closca Molla', `Ratoli', `Yoder #5', `Potomac', `Medium Long', and `Grand Traverse'. `Closca Molla' and `Ratoli', both minor Spanish cultivars, are superior in many respects to `Gasaway', which has been extensively used as a completely resistant parent in breeding. `Potomac' and `Yoder #5' have C. americana Marsh. in their pedigrees, `Grand Traverse' is one-quarter C. colurna, and the origin of `Medium Long' is uncertain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker generated by primer UBC 152, which is linked to the single dominant resistance gene of `Gasaway', is absent in these six genotypes, and thus they appear to be novel sources of genetic resistance to this devastating disease.

Free access