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  • Author or Editor: M.L. Smith x
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Micrografting is an effective technique for elimination of viruses, early diagnosis of grafting incompatibilities, rejuvenation of mature tissue, and bypassing the juvenile phase in fruit trees. Current micrografting procedures are difficult, impractical, expensive, and generally result in an inefficient rate of successful graft production. In order to alleviate some of these limitations, a unique apparatus was designed to splice the in vitro-derived scion and rootstock together during the micrografting process. The dual-layer device was constructed with a pliant outer layer to facilitate manipulation during the grafting of micro-scale plants, and a delicate, absorbent inner layer to cushion the plant tissue and retain hormones and other compounds. These chemicals are slowly released at the grafting zone to alleviate oxidation and enhance callus formation at the cut surface of scion and rootstock. After healing, it is easy to remove the grafting apparatus from the grafted plant without damaging the tissues. This apparatus may be used to unite a scion and a rootstock with different stem diameters. Shoot-tip cultures of `McIntosh' and `M-7' apple and `North Star' sweet cherry, and in vitro seedlings of lemon, orange and grapefruit were used as a source of in vitro scions and rootstocks. Successful graft unions were developed, and the grafted plants were transplanted into the greenhouse environment Micrografted plants were sectioned to determine the anatomical characteristics of the graft union.

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Dry edible beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) represent an inexpensive way to incorporate protein into the diet as a food ingredient, but beans contain unpleasant flavors and several anti-nutritional factors that limit their use without first processing with long heat treatments. `Great Northern' bean flour was processed using either static or specially designed dynamic (continuous) processing methods. The dynamic process treated flour slurries at temperatures up to 124°for 20 sec. The slurries were quick-frozen and freeze-dried after frozen storage periods of 0, 8, 24, 120, or 504 hr. The flours were analyzed for sensory properties, emulsifying activity, foaming properties, and trypsin inhibition. The heat treatments improved sensory attributes of the flour. The foam capacity and foam stability decreased in heat-treated flours. Trypsin inhibitor activity was at a minimum level immediately following thermal processing, but increased with time in frozen storage prior to drying. Minimal thermal processes cannot be relied upon to inactivate trypsin inhibitors.

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Interaction between irradiance levels (5–40 mMm–2–s–1) and iron chelate sources (FeNa2EDTA and FeNaDTPA) on the establishment, growth, and proliferation of shoot tips of Carica papaya were tested. Reduced irradiance level (5 mMm–2–s–1) enhanced the establishment of shoot tips regardless of the source of iron chelate tested. At higher irradiance levels (30 and 40 mMm–2–s–1), presence of FeNaDTPA in the medium enhanced establishment of shoot tips. Continuous or alternating light/dark (16/8 h) photoperiods at high irradiance levels had no effect on the establishment or growth of the culture. At higher irradiance levels, the cultures produced smaller leaves as compared to lower irradiance levels. Low irradiance and FeNa2EDTA was preferred during the proliferation stage.

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Many plants can produce bioactive chemicals with medicinal or health benefits, which has stimulated a whole new research effort aimed at extracting & improving natural phytochemicals. Begonia is a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and an excellent donor for natural anthocyanin pigments. High levels of triterpene compounds and a host of potentially-useful flavonoids have been isolated from Begonia sp., which may account for its frequent use as a medicinal plant remedy in a diverse array of cultures worldwide. Deliberate shifting of the physical and chemical microenvironments can have a significant effect on anthocyanins and precursors produced in vitro. This realization offers the potential to thoroughly screen and study valuable phytochemicals from Begonia. Begonia genotypes from 3 species were screened to identify callus induction techniques. Contamination inherent in the vascular system of one genotype, along with spontaneous organogenesis, were found to be recurrent problems. These were partially alleviated by light and growth regulator treatments. Studies comparing callus and in vitro vegetative tissues as resources for phytochemical extraction are scheduled.

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Use of a liquid media during micropropagation has promoted improved proliferation and rooting response in several species. In this experiment, a double phase system (a combination of liquid and agar solidified medium) was applied to three cultivars of miniature roses (Rosa chinensis var. minima) to determine the effects on shoot quality and subsequent ex-vitro rooting. Applications of liquid media to the surface of agar solidified media were made at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Evaluation via computerized image analysis after eight weeks of proliferation revealed equal or greater values for shoot length, area and weighted density (equivalent to fresh weight) for cultures receiving overlay, regardless of timing, compared to the solid media control. Additionally, application of a liquid overlay improved rooting response by up to 20% over the control and resulted in a tendency for a greater number of roots of greater length and area than the treatment without liquid media overlay.

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Interactions between irradiance levels (5–40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and iron chelate sources (FeEDTA and FeEDDHA) were observed for Carica papaya shoot tip cultures during both the establishment and proliferation stages of microculture. Reduced levels of irradiance (5 μmol·m-2·s-1) favored shoot tip establishment regardless of the source or level of iron. However, the highest percentage of successful explant establishment (100%), and significantly greater leaf length (1.16 cm; over double the size attained in any other treatment), resulted when a low concentration of FeEDTA alone was used at low irradiance. During the subsequent shoot proliferation stage, however, higher irradiance levels (30 and 40 μmol·m-2·s-1) were required, and FeEDTA failed to support culture growth when used as the sole iron source. The highest multiplication rates (3.6 shoots per explant) and leaf chlorophyll concentrations (0.22 mg/g fresh mass), and significantly improved shoot quality were achieved at 30 μmol·m-2·s-1 irradiance when both iron chelate formulations were combined (each at a 100 μM concentration) in the proliferation medium. Chemical names used: benzylamino purine (BA); ferric disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate or FeNa2EDTA (FeEDTA); ferric monosodium ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetate), (FeNaEDDHA) or Sequestrene 138Fe (FeEDDHA); indoleacetic acid (IAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Abstract

Roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] and beet (Beta vulgaris L.) peeled with superheated steam, had higher peel and trim yields than did those peeled with saturated steam at the same pressure. Product recovery was greater with all steam-peeling methods than with caustic peeling. Direct injection of cold water into the partially pressurized steam atmosphere of the peeler also increased product recovery. Better color retention in processed beets was obtained from steam-peeled roots than from caustic-peeled roots.

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Polyphenolic compounds (particularly anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids) from some fruits and vegetables have significant and diverse impacts on human health preservation. While it's well recognized that some of the polyphenolics in foods we consume have a protective and proactive role against disease, very little has been known about how they accomplish this feat. A range of bioassays (in vitro and in laboratory animals) were adapted to examine compounds extracted from berry fruits, and separated into distinct fractions by vacuum chromatography. The proanthocyanidin class of compounds, as well as mixtures of proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids, were significantly bioactive against both the promotion and initiation stages of chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Potent antioxidant activity was not confined to particular fractions, but was present in several classes of compounds. Identification and characterization of the bioflavonoids is complicated both by apparent interactions between related compounds that occur together within horticultural fruits, and interferences from some substances (pectins and complex sugars) that depress observed response in bioactivity assays.

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In vitro cell cultures of huckleberry and bilberry are sources of phytochemicals for use as food colorants and bioactive chemopreventives. Shoot cultures provide a convenient, presterile source of explants for production of callus rich in extractable pigments or other chemicals. Efficient callus formation only occurs with good-quality shoots. In this study, liquid and gelled support systems were compared in terms of their effect on shoot growth. Gellan gum-based support resulted in excellent shoot proliferation and suitable shoot length for huckleberry cultures, whereas bilberry performed slightly better on agar and agar/gellan gum support. Bilberry had a more-rapid growth rate than huckleberry. Hyperhydricity was found with the use of rafts for both species. These shoot cultures have been used as vegetative explants for callus, and have produced vivid anthocyanins in solution cultures.

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Authors: , , and

The only method for large scale production of pure hybrid seed in Zinnia elegans involves the use of male sterile individuals. The male sterile trait, however, is a three gene recessive which at best produces only 50% male sterile progeny from seed. Since no method of clonal propagation is available, seed-produced female lines require labor intensive field roguing to insure removal of all normal flowered individuals. Clonal micropropagation was investigated as a means of mass producing male steriles for use as female lines. Sterilization procedures were developed for seed and axillary bud explants. Shoot proliferation media containing various levels of BAP, 2ip, and kinetin were screened using in vitro germinated seedling explants of the inbred line `Orange Starlight'. Microshoots demonstrated a high rooting percentage after 2 weeks on basal medium without growth regulators. Plantlets were easily acclimated in 1 to 2 weeks in a high humidity environment. In vitro derived plants of identified male sterile plants were phenotypically evaluated as to their suitability for use in field production.

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