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  • Author or Editor: Kent D. Kobayashi x
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Graduate students within the Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences Department at the University of Hawaii at Manoa developed a program that addressed their concerns regarding career enhancement and planned a Professional Development Seminar Series. Students identified topics related to enhancing their overall graduate experience and professional development, such as ethics in research, leadership in graduate school and beyond, interviewing skills, and writing critically for publications. Experts from the University of Hawaii and business communities presented 35- to 40-minute seminars on the various topics. Expectations of the students included participation in discussion sessions and completion of a critical thinking exercise after each presentation. Course evaluations revealed that the new seminar series was considered to be as effective as established courses within the department. On a scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree, students learned to value new viewpoints [4.2 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD)], related what they learned in class to their own experiences (4.5 ± 0.8), and felt the course was a valuable contribution to their education (4.4 ± 0.9). Students suggested offering the course during fall semesters to incoming students, reinforcing of the critical thinking exercise, and making the course mandatory for first-year graduate students.

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A computerized personal information management system has been developed to provide information on crop production and industry status to extension personnel and farmers. This hypermedia system, which links interrelated facts, enables the user to browse easily through a mass of information and access specific data rapidly.

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Abstract

Leaf areas of Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cvs. Kakea and Keaau were estimated by equations involving linear dimensions length and width in second degree polynomials. The equations accurately estimated leaf area at 2 locations for each cultivar.

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Abstract

In Kona, Hawaii, coffee is dormant from December to February. Water is critical for spring vegetative growth (1), on which next year's flowers are produced. Water stress has reduced extension growth, node number, and leaf area of coffee (5), and irrigation has increased internode extension and node production (3). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amount and frequency of irrigation on vegetative growth of coffee.

Open Access

Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is grown mainly as an uninigated crop in the Kona district of Hawaii (Big Island). Previous research has shown that water status and crop load are major components of annual yield fluctuations exhibited by coffee in Kona. The need for a quantitative method to estimate yield has led to the development of a yield model. Seven years of historical yield, meteorological, and soil data were utilized. Meteorological and soil data were used in a soil water balance model developed with the simulation language Stella® (High Performance Systems Inc.) to generate a daily soil water status value. Then, values for the number of days and mm of deficit (duration and magnitude) were grouped in trimesters and used to estimate yield: Yn = 17425 - 6.3(T2)n-1 - 181(T3)n-1 + 0.26(Y)n-1 where Yn, is the current year's yield (kg/ha); T2 is the water deficit during April-June of the previous year (days-mm); T3 is the water deficit during July-September of the previous year (days-mm); Yn-1 is the previous year's yield (kg/ha); and n is the current year. The use of this model permitted yield estimation three months before anthesis and nine months before the start of harvest with a mean prediction error of 17% or 3,154 kg/ha of coffee cherry.

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The University of Hawaii at Manoa campus offers a rich diversity of plants for students, university personnel, and the public. Although providing botanical facts, a current university web site and an arboretum brochure about campus plants lack horticulturally related information. By highlighting the unique horticultural plants on campus, a web site would provide valuable information on the uses, care, and propagation of these plants. The purpose of this project was to develop a web site featuring horticulturally important plants on campus. The home page explains why plants are beneficial in interior spaces. Other sections of the web site include basic plant care, plant selection, plant names, and plant pictures. Basic plant care covers planting media, containers, watering, lighting, fertilizing, pruning, propagation, and pest control. Users can select plants using two criteria—lighting in the plant's desired location (low, medium, and high) and low plant maintenance. Information on a specific plant is accessed by common name, scientific name, or a plant's picture. Each plant's web page provides details on its background, care, and propagation. By emphasizing the important horticultural plants on campus, this web site helps students, university personnel, and the public select and grow plants for their dormitories, apartments, offices, and homes. In addition, users gain knowledge about the lush landscape environment on campus. Lastly, the web site enhances the learning experience of students in horticulture and botany courses, serves as a resource for K–12 students for their visits to the campus to learn about tropical plants, and aids tourists in planning a more informative visit to campus to see the plants they learned about on the web site.

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Photoselective shadecloths that manipulate light quality may enable nursery growers to achieve desired plant growth. This ability to manage plant habit could give growers an additional nonchemical tool to improve potted plant quality. The objective of this study was to determine growth and flowering responses of potted Dracaena and Anthurium plants to four shadecloths. Dracaena deremensis `Janet Craig' and Dracaena marginata `Colorama' cane top-cuttings were placed in 70% black cinder: 30% peat moss media. Anthurium `Lola' liners were transplanted into 100% black cinder medium. Plants were grown in a greenhouse under 70% shadecloths: black, gray, red, and blue. Four months after planting, Dracaena `Janet Craig' had more new leaves under red shadecloth (10.4) compared to other shadecloths (8.9–9.3). Leaf area was less with red shadecloth (340 cm2) than other treatments (380-388 cm2). Plants under the red shadecloth had the lowest grower evaluation scores (5.4; 1 = poor, 10 = excellent) than those under other shadecloths (7.2–8.2), but all plants were considered marketable. Dracaena `Colorama' plants under red shadecloth had the greater plant height increase (20.1 cm) than those under other shadecloths (10.1–13.2 cm). Red shadecloth resulted in more new leaves (26.2) compared to other treatments (18.0–21.4). Anthurium `Lola' flower height 9 months after transplanting was less under red shadecloth (23.0 cm) than under black (33.0 cm). The number of flowers/pot was greater under red shadecloth (3.17) compared to those under other shadecloths (0.50–1.33). Flower size was greater (35.2 cm2) under red shadecloth than under black (20.0 cm2). Photoselective shadecloths may be used to nonchemically manipulate plant growth and improve the quality of potted Dracaena and Anthurium plants.

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The objective of this study was to develop models to predict the occurrence of the flowering peak of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). At Hilo and Kona, weather and `Ikaika' flowering data were collected. The best model that described the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the highest flowering peak was days = 249.15 + 0.12 (total growing degree days) - 5.81 (maximum temperature) - 6.26 (minimum temperature). The model predicted the highest peak 4 days before it occurred at Hilo and 4 days after it occurred at Kona. Two statistical models, one for each location, were developed to predict the time from the starting date of the flowering season to the first peak. At Hilo, the best model was days = 118.61 - 0.11 (total growing degree days) + 0.000168 (total solar radiation). The model predicted the first peak 1 day before it occurred in the field. The best model at Kona was days = (-156.34) + 12.67 (minimum temperature) + 0.01 (total growing degree days). The model predicted the first peak on the day it occurred in the field. These models may aid growers in predicting the flowering peak so that bees can be brought into orchards at the proper time to increase cross-pollination.

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Growers and extension personnel need an easy to use method to help diagnose common problems of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). The Apple Macintosh®) computer and the software HyperCard® provides one such system. We developed a hypermedia stack (file) that gives users the two options of helping diagnose a problem or providing additional information on a problem and its solution. Twenty-three of the most common problems of macadamia nut in Hawaii are coveted including insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies, harvest, postharvest handling, herbicide injury, poor flowering, and premature nut drop.

With the first option, the program asks the user on what part of the tree does the problem exist--leaves, flowers, nuts, branches, trunk, roots, or the entire tree. It then displays pictures of symptoms of problems specific to that part of the tree, and the user indicates whether these symptoms are present. The program gives the user additional information on the problem, its cause, conditions conducive to the problem, and possible solutions to resolve the problem. With the second option, i.e., if the user already knows the name of the problem, the additional information and solution are shown immediately. This program provides growers and extension personnel with a simple, quick, computerized tool to diagnose problems and access information and solutions.

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