Various rates of ancymidol granular incorporated, granular broadcast, soil drench, and foliar spray treatments were tested on 7 breeding plant species. Generally, treatment of media affected plant height more than foliar sprays. Media treatments reduced height linearly, with increasing rates reducing plant height. Effects were similar for Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schultz and Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey plants. Height of Targetes erecta L. plants was controlled most effectively by 311 to 622 mg a.i. m−3 drenches or granular incorporated. Begonia semperflorens - cultorum Hort., and Antirrhinum majus L. plant height was best controlled with granular incorporated ancymidol at rates of 155 to 622 mg a.i. and 311 to 1243 mg a.i. m−3, respectively. Germination of Tagetes and Pelargonium seed was unaffected by granular incorporated ancymidol at 78 to 311 mg a.i. m−3. Chemical names used: a-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol).
The growth retardants ancymidol, flurprimidol, and chlormequat chloride were incorporated into plaster of paris tablets and compared to drenches on various plants. Ancymidol tablets were as effective as drenches in controlling height and increasing racemes of Clerodendrum thomasoniae Balf. (southern bleeding heart). Drenches of ancymidol and flurprimidol reduced the height of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Easter lily) more than tablets; flurprimidol reduced Lilium height more than ancymidol. Tablets reduced the height of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch (poinsettia) cvs. Topstar and V-14 Glory, but not C-1 Red. Ancymidol drenches produced shorter ‘C-1 Red’ and ‘V-14 Glory’ plants than tablets. Tablets reduced bract diameter more than drenches. Flurprimidol tablets produced the smallest bracts. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol); 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).
Passiflora caerulea L., blue passion-flower, has been hybridized with other species to produce hybrids of ornamental value and has been grown as a potted plant. P. edulis Sims, the passion fruit, has handsome 3-lobed leaves and large white ornamental flowers. Both species are large vines that would make interesting potted, patio hanging-basket or trellis plants if their stem elongation could be controlled.
Total immersion of Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum L. H. Bailey, Sanchezia speciosa J. Leonard, and Strobilanthes dyeranus M. T. Mast. cuttings in aqueous solutions of the morphactins chlorflurecol and chlorflurenethol prior to propagation retarded plant growth 16 weeks after rooting. Height of Sanchezia and Strobilanthes also was reduced by dips of chlorfluren and dichlorflurecol and chlormequat chloride. Morphactins caused abnormal growth on Pseuderanthemum and Strobilanthes. Dips of PBA reduced the height of Pseuderanthemum and Strobilanthes. Pseuderanthemum height also was reduced by ancymidol and ethephon dips, and height was reduced on Strobilanthes by oxathiin and piproctanyl bromide. Chlorflurecol dips reduced plant dry weight of all species. Plant dry weight of Strobilanthes also was reduced by chlorofluren, chloroflurenthol, oxathiin, and PBA immersion. Ethephon, PBA, and chlorflurenthol dips also reduced Pseuderanthemum dry weight. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-9-hydroxy-9H-fluorene-9-carboxylic acid (chlorflurecol); 2-chlorofluorenecarbonic acid-(9)-methylester (dichloroflurecol); 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-carbonic acid-(9)-p-chlorophenoxyethylester (chloroflurenethol); 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); N-(phenylmethyl)-9-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-9H purin-6-amine (PBA); α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyI)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (2-chlorethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); 2,3-dihydro-5,6-diphenyl-1,4-oxathiin (oxathiin); 1-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-1-(2-propenyl)piperidinium bromide, (piproctanyl bromide).
Environmental concerns and disadvantages of synthetic insecticides have stimulated interest in natural chemicals derived from plants for insect control. Extracts from seeds of the neem tree (Azidirachta indica A. Juss) have attracted attention as an insecticide not only because of its broad spectrum action, but also because it has demonstrated uncommon safety to man and warm-blooded animals and the environment (Henkes, 1986). Furthermore, neem extract has been reported to act systemically to effectively control serpentine leafminer (Liromyza trifolii Burgess), a serious pest on ornamentals and vegetables due mainly to pesticide resistance (Larew et al., 1984; Lindquist et al., 1986; Stein and Parrella, 1985; Webb et al., 1983). Larew et al. (1984) demonstrated that neem soil drenches provided systemic control of L. trifolii for up to 3 weeks. Lindquist et al. (1986) investigated the use of neem insecticide (Margosan-O) as a preshipping crop treatment by soaking bare root cuttings in neem solutions. Their 2- to 4-hr soaks (3.0% Margosan-O) effectively controlled leafminers for 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple in-transit application method could provide control of serpentine leafminers on chrysanthemum.
Two surveys (one of 101 florists and one of 122 businesses) determined that florists spend little time or money recruiting commercial accounts. Poor communication among businesses and florists was a problem. Of the responding businesses, 91% were never contacted by their florists for any reason, and the methods florists did use for recruiting commercial accounts were incompatible with the means that businesses used to choose florists. Because 79% of businesses made some type of purchase from a florist during the year, florists could pursue commercial accounts as a way of increasing sales. When recruiting new accounts, florists should consider businesses' product preferences, peak gift-giving times, and purchasing preferences.
An isolate of Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferraris from Ilex crenata Thunb. was highly pathogenic to susceptible hollies while the isolate from Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey was less pathogenic. Various ratios of pine bark and sphagnum peatmoss did not suppress T. basicola on susceptible hollies. Of the cultivars tested, I. crenata ‘Helleri’ and I. pernyi Franch were most susceptible, while I. aquifolium L. × I. cornuta Lindl. and Paxt. ‘Nellie R. Stevens’, I. cornuta ‘Burfordii’ × I. peryni ‘Lydia Morris’, and I. cornuta ‘Burfordii Nana’ were the most resistant to T. basicola. I. crenata ‘Helleri’, grown in a medium with a pH of 5.0 or 6.0, had less black root rot development than similar plants in a medium with a pH of 6.5.